Financial Glossary - R

R squared (R2): Square of the correlation coefficient proportion of the variability explained by the linear regression model. For example, an r squared of 75% means that 75% of the variability observed in the dependent variable is explained by the independent variable.

Rally (recovery):
An upward movement of prices; opposite of reaction.

RAMs (Reverse-annuity mortgages):
Mortgages in which the bank makes a loan for an amount equal to a percentage of the appraisal value of the home. The loan is then paid to the homeowner in the form of an annuity.

Random variable: A function that assigns a real number to each and every possible outcome of a random experiment.

Random walk:
Theory that stock price changes from day to day are at random; the changes are independent of each other and have the same probability distribution. Many believers of the random walk theory believe that it is impossible to outperform the market consistently without taking additional risk.

Randomized strategy:
A strategy of introducing into the decision-making process a random element that is designed to reduce the information content of the decision maker's observed choices.

Range: The high and low prices, or high and low bids and offers recorded during a specified time.

Range forward: A forward exchange rate contract that places upper and lower bounds on the cost of foreign exchange.

Rate anticipation swaps:
An exchange of bonds in a portfolio for new bonds that will achieve the target portfolio duration, based on the investor's assumptions about future changes in interest rates.

Rate lock:
An agreement between the mortgage banker and the loan applicant guaranteeing a specified interest rate for a designated period, usually 60 days.

Rate of interest: The rate, as a proportion of the principal, at which interest is computed.

Rate of return ratios: Ratios that are designed to measure the profitability of the firm in relation to various measures of the funds invested in the firm.

Rate risk: In banking, the risk that profits may decline or losses occur because a rise in interest rates forces up the cost of funding fixed-rate loans or other fixed-rate assets.

Ratings: An evaluation of credit quality Moody's, S&P, and Fitch Investors Service give to companies used by investors and analysts.

Rational expectations: The ideas that people rationally anticipate the future and respond to what they see ahead.

Raw material supply agreement:
As used in connection with project financing, an agreement to furnish a specified amount per period of a specified raw material.

Reaction: A decline in prices following an advance; opposite of rally.

Real assets: Identifiable assets, such as buildings, equipment, patents, and trademarks, as distinguished from a financial obligation.

Real capital: Wealth that can be represented in financial terms, such as savings account balances, financial securities, and real estate.

Real cash flow: A cash flow is expressed in real terms if the current, or date 0,the purchasing power of the cash flow is given.

Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT):
An investment vehicle that invests funds on behalf of its investors in real estate-related investments such as construction loans, mortgages, land, and real estate company securities.

Real exchange rates:
Exchange rates that have been adjusted for the inflation differential between two countries.

Real interest rate: The rate of interest excluding the effect of inflation; that is, the rate that is earned in terms of constant-purchasing-power dollars. Interest rate expressed in terms of real goods, i.e. nominal interest rate adjusted for inflation.

Real market: The bid and offer prices at which a dealer could do "size." Quotes in the brokers market may reflect not the real market, but pictures painted by dealers playing trading games.

Real time:
A real-time stock or bond quote is one that states a security's most recent offer to sell or bid (buy). A delayed quote shows the same bid and asks prices 15 minutes and sometimes 20 minutes after a trade takes place.

Realized compound yield:
Yield assuming that coupon payments are invested at the going market interest rate at the time of their receipt and rolled over until the bond matures.

Realized profits and losses:
A profit or loss realized from the sale of capital assets, such as portfolio securities.

Realized return:
The return that is actually earned over a given time period.

Realigning the proportions of assets in a portfolio as needed.

Receivables balance fractions:
The percentage of a month's sales that remain uncollected (and part of accounts receivable) at the end of succeeding months.

Receivables turnover ratio:
Total operating revenues divided by average receivables. Used to measure how effectively a firm is managing its accounts receivable.

Receiver: A bankruptcy practitioner appointed by secured creditors in the United Kingdom to oversee the repayment of debts.

Reclamation: A claim for the right to return or the right to demand the return of a security that has been previously accepted as a result of bad delivery or other irregularities in the delivery and settlement process.

Record date: (1) Date by which a shareholder must officially own shares in order to be entitled to a dividend. For example, a firm might declare a dividend on Nov 1, payable Dec 1 to holders of record Nov 15. Once a trade is executed an investor becomes the "owner of record" on settlement which currently takes 5 business days for securities, and one business day for mutual funds. Stocks trade ex-dividend the fourth day before the record date since the seller will still be the owner of the record and is thus entitled to the dividend. (2) The date that determines who is entitled to payment of principal and interest due to be paid on a security. The record date for most MBSs is the last day of the month, however, the last day on which they may be presented for the transfer is the last business day of the month. The record date for CMOs and asset-backed securities vary with each issue.

Recourse: Term describing a type of loan. If a loan is recourse, the lender has a general claim against the parent company if the collateral is insufficient to repay the debt.

Red herring:
A preliminary prospectus containing the information required by the SEC. It excludes the offering price and the coupon of the new issue.

Red Herring:
A preliminary prospectus, so-called because certain information is printed in red ink around the border of the front page. It does not contain all the information found in the final prospectus. Its purpose is to ascertain the extent of public interest in an issue while it is being reviewed by a securities commission.

Redeemable: Eligible for redemption under the terms of the indenture.

The purchase of securities by the issuing company from the holder, at a time and price stipulated in the original terms of the securities. The redemption price is the price at which debt securities or preferred shares may be redeemed at the option of the issuing company.

Redemption charge: The commission charged by a mutual fund when redeeming shares. For example, a 2% redemption charge (also called a "back end load") on the sale of shares valued at $1000 will result in payment of $980 (or 98% of the value) to the investor. This charge may decrease or be eliminated as shares are held for longer time periods.

Redemption cushion: The percentage by which the conversion value of a convertible security exceeds the redemption price (strike price).

Reference rate: A benchmark 'interest rate (such as LIBOR), used to specify conditions of an interest rate swap or an interest rate agreement.

Refinancing or Refunding: When new securities are sold by a government or a company and the money is used to pay off existing loans. The object may be to save interest costs, extend the maturity of the loan, or both.

Refundable: Eligible for refunding under the terms of the indenture.

Refunded bond: Also called a pre-refunded bond, one that originally may have been issued as a general obligation or revenue bond but that is now secured by an "escrow fund" consisting entirely of direct U.S. government obligations that are sufficient for paying the bondholders.

Refunding: The redemption of a bond with proceeds received from issuing lower-cost debt obligations ranking equal to or superior to the debt to be redeemed.

Regional fund:
A mutual fund that invests in a specific geographical area overseas, such as Asia or Europe.

Registered bond: A bond whose issuer records ownership and interest payments. Differs from a bearer bond which is traded without the record of ownership and whose possession is the only evidence of ownership.

Registered Education Savings Plan (RESP): An investment plan that allows savings to grow tax-free until a child is ready to pursue a post-secondary education, at which time the money is withdrawn to help finance the costs.

Registered Pension Plan (RPP):
A RPP is a trust registered with Revenue Canada and established by a company to provide pension benefits for its employees when they retire. Both employee and employer contributions to the plan are tax-deductible.

Registered Representative:
A person registered with the CFTC who is employed by, and soliciting business for, a commission house or futures commission merchant.

Registered Retirement Income Fund (RRIF):
Is one of the maturity options for an RRSP. A RRIF can hold the same investment as an RRSP but is subject to a minimum yearly withdrawal (included in taxable income) commencing at age 72.

Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP): A provision in the Income Tax Act that allows an investor to shelter investment income by placing property with a Trustee. This property can then be invested in qualifying investments (GIC's, stocks, bonds, mortgages, mutual funds investing in these instruments, etc.) The tax treatment of the investment income is irrelevant, as it is not declared for tax purposes until withdrawn. Any withdrawal from an RRSP is added to taxable income in the year of withdrawal and may result in income taxes payable. Any property contributed to an RRSP reduces taxable income by the amount of the contribution, if within prescribed limits.

The RRSP must be matured by the end of the year in which you turn 71. The maturity options are the following:

• Registered Retirement Income Fund (RRIF)

• Qualified Annuity

• Plan Collapse (i.e., receive a cash payment for all of the RRSP minus withholding tax).

Registered Security: A security recorded on the books of a company in the name of the owner. It can only be transferred when the securities certificate is endorsed in that name and the certificate is forwarded to the transfer agent. Registered debt securities may be registered as to principal only or fully registered. In the case of fully registered debt securities, interest is paid by cheque rather than by coupons attached to the certificate.

Registered Tax Deferral Savings Plans:
Government-approved savings plans such as Registered Pension Plans, Registered Retirement Savings Plans, and Registered Retirement Income Funds, in which funds contributed by individuals are tax-deductible within certain limits and investment earnings accumulate in the plans on a tax-deferred basis until de-registration or maturity of the plans.

Registered trader: A member of the exchange who executes frequent trades for his or her own account.

Registrar: Financial institution appointed to record issue and ownership of company securities.

1. The process of securities registration involves filing a prospectus with the securities administrators as required under the Securities Act of each province in which the securities will be offered. 2. Investment dealers and sales staff involved in the investment business must be registered with the applicable self-regulatory organization. Before registration is allowed, basic standards must be met, such as minimum capital requirements for a firm and minimum educational qualifications for personnel.

Registration statement:
A legal document that is filed with the SEC to register securities for a public offering.

Regression analysis:
A statistical technique that can be used to estimate relationships between variables.

Regression equation:
An equation that describes the average relationship between a dependent variable and a set of explanatory variables.

Regression toward the mean:
The tendency for subsequent observations of a random variable to be closer to its mean.

Regular way settlement:
In the money and bond markets, the regular basis on which some security trades are settled is that the delivery of the securities purchased is made against payment in Fed funds on the day following the transaction.

Regulation A:
The securities regulation that exempts small public offerings, those valued at less than $1.5MM, from most registration requirements with the SEC.

Regulation D:
Fed regulation currently that required member banks to hold reserves against their net borrowings from foreign offices of other banks over a 28-day averaging period. Regulation D has been merged with Regulation M.

Regulation M: Fed regulation currently requiring member banks to hold reserves against their net borrowings from their foreign branches over a 28-day averaging period. Reg M has also required member banks to hold reserves against Eurodollars lent by their foreign branches to domestic corporations for domestic purposes.

Regulation Q: Fed regulation imposing caps on the rates that banks may pay on savings and time deposits. Currently, time deposits with a denomination of $100,000 or more are exempt from Reg Q.

Regulatory accounting procedures: Accounting principles required by the FHLB that allow S&Ls to elect annually to defer gains and losses on the sale of assets and amortize these deferrals over the average life of the asset sold.

Regulatory pricing risk: Risk that arises when regulators restrict the premium rates that insurance companies can charge.

Regulatory risk:
The risk that interest rates will decrease as investments or bond coupons come due.

Regulatory surplus: The surplus as measured using regulatory accounting principles (RAP) which may allow the non-market valuation of assets or liabilities and which may be materially different from economic surplus.

Reinvestment rate:
The rate at which an investor assumes interest payments made on a debt security can be reinvested over the life of that security.

Reinvestment risk:
The risk that proceeds received in the future will have to be reinvested at a lower potential interest rate.

Re-invoicing center:
A central financial subsidiary used by an MNC to reduce transaction exposure by having all home country exports billed in the home currency and then re-invoiced to each operating affiliate in that affiliate's local currency. It can also be used as a netting center.

REIT (real estate investment trust):
Real estate investment trust, which is similar to a closed-end mutual fund. REITs invest in real estate or loans secured by real estate and issue shares in such investments.

Relative purchasing power parity (RPPP): Idea that the rate of change in the price level of commodities in one country relative to the price level in another determines the rate of change of the exchange rate between the two countries' currencies.

Relative strength:
A stock's price movement over the past year as compared to a market index (the S&P 500).A value below 1.0 means the stock shows relative weakness in price movement (underperformed the market); a value of 1.0 means the stock shows relative strength over the 1-year period. Equation for Relative Strength: [current stock price/year-ago stock price] [current S&P 500/year-ago S&P 500].

Relative value: The attractiveness measured in terms of risk, liquidity, and a return of one instrument relative to another, or for a given instrument, of one maturity relative to another.

Relative yield spread:
The ratio of the yield spread to the yield level.

Remainderman: One who receives the principal of a trust when it is dissolved.

Remaining maturity:
The length of time remaining until a bond's maturity.

Remaining principal balance:
The number of principal dollars remaining to be paid under the mortgage as of a given point in time.

Rembrandt market:
The foreign market in the Netherlands.

REMIC (real estate mortgage investment conduit):
A pass-through tax entity that can hold mortgages secured by any type of real property and issue multiple classes of ownership interests to investors in the form of pass-through certificates, bonds, or other legal forms. A financing vehicle created under the Tax Reform Act of 1986.

Remote disbursement: Technique that involves writing checks drawn on banks in remote locations so as to increase disbursement float.

Reoffering yield:
In a purchase and sale, the yield to maturity at which the underwriter offers to sell the bonds to investors.

Reopen an issue: The Treasury, when it wants to sell additional securities, will occasionally sell more of an existing issue (reopen it) rather than offer a new issue.

Creating a plan to restructure a debtor's business and restore its financial health.

Replacement cost: Cost to replace a firm's assets.

Replacement cycle: The frequency with which an asset is replaced by an equivalent asset.

Replacement value:
Current cost of replacing the firm's assets.

Replacement-chain problem:
Idea that future replacement decisions must be taken into account in selecting among projects.

Replicating portfolio:
A portfolio constructed to match an index or benchmark.

An agreement in which one party sells a security to another party and agrees to repurchase it on a specified date for a specified price.

Reported factor: The pool factor as reported by the bond buyer for a given amortization period.

Reporting currency:
The currency in which the parent firm prepares its own financial statements; that is, U.S. dollars for a U.S. company.

Reporting Issuer: A corporation that has issued and outstanding securities held by the public and is subject to the continuous disclosure requirements of securities administrators.

Reproducible assets: A tangible asset with physical properties that can be reproduced, such as a building or machinery.

Repurchase agreement: An agreement with a commitment by the seller (dealer) to buy a security back from the purchaser (customer) at a specified price at a designated future date. Also called a repo, it represents a collateralized short-term loan, where the collateral may be a Treasury security, money market instrument, federal agency security, or mortgage-backed security. From the purchaser (customer) perspective, the deal is reported as a reverse Repo.

Repurchase of stock: Device to pay cash to firm's shareholders that provide a preferable tax treatment for shareholders than dividends. Treasury stock is the name given to previously issued stock that has been repurchased by the firm. A repurchase is achieved through either a Dutch auction, an open market, or a tender offer.

Required reserves: The dollar amounts based on reserve ratios that banks are required to keep on deposit at a Federal Reserve Bank.

Required return: The minimum expected return you would require to be willing to purchase the asset, that is, to make the investment.

Required yield: Generally referring to bonds, the yield required by the marketplace to match available returns for financial instruments with comparable risk.

Reserve: An accounting entry that properly reflects the contingent liabilities.

Reserve currency: A foreign currency held by a central bank or monetary authority for the purposes of exchange intervention and the settlement of inter-governmental claims.

Reserve ratios:
Specified percentages of deposits, established by the Federal Reserve Board, that banks must keep in a non-interest-bearing account at one of the twelve Federal Reserve Banks.

Reserve requirements:
The percentage of different types of deposits that member banks are required to hold on deposit at the Fed.

Reset frequency:
The frequency with which the floating rate changes.

Residuals: (1) Parts of stock returns not explained by the explanatory variable (the market-index return). They measure the impact of firm-specific events during a particular period. (2) Remainder cash flows generated by pool collateral and those needed to fund bonds supported by the collateral.

Residual assets: Assets that remain after sufficient assets are dedicated to meet all senior debt holder’s claims in full.

Residual dividend approach: An approach that suggests that a firm pays dividends if and only if acceptable investment opportunities for those funds are currently unavailable.

Residual losses: Lost wealth of the shareholders due to the divergent behavior of the managers.

Residual method: A method of allocating the purchase price for the acquisition of another firm among the acquired assets.

Residual value:
Usually refers to the value of a lessor's property at the time the lease expires.

Resistance level:
A price level above which it is supposedly difficult for a security or market to rise.

Restrictive covenants:
Provisions that place constraints on the operations of borrowers, such as restrictions on working capital, fixed assets, future borrowing, and payment of dividend.

Restricted shares:
Shares that have limited voting rights or in some cases, no voting rights. These shares participate in a company's earnings and assets in liquidation as common shares do and are sometimes referred to as restricted common shares. Restricted shares may not command the same market price as voting common shares of the same company since they do not have voting rights.

Retail: Individual and institutional customers as opposed to dealers and brokers.

Retail branch: A location where banking services are provided to individuals.

Retail credit:
Credit granted by a firm to consumers for the purchase of goods or services.

Retail investors, individual investors: Small investors who commit capital for their personal account.

Retained earnings:
Accounting earnings that are retained by the firm for reinvestment in its operations; earnings that are not paid out as dividends.

Retention rate: The percentage of present earnings held back or retained by a corporation, or one minus the dividend payout rate. Also called the retention ratio.

To extinguish a security, as in paying off a debt.

Retracement: A price movement in the opposite direction of the previous trend.

Retractable: A feature which can be included in a new debt issue or preferred share which grants the holder the option, under specified conditions, to redeem the security on a stated date. This date would be prior to maturity in the case of a debt issue.

The change in the value of a portfolio over an evaluation period, including any distributions made from the portfolio during that period.

Return on assets (ROA):
Indicator of profitability. Determined by dividing net income for the past 12 months by total average assets. The result is shown as a percentage. ROA can be decomposed into return on sales (net income/sales) multiplied by asset utilization (sales/assets).

Return on equity (ROE):
Indicator of profitability. Determined by dividing net income for the past 12 months by common stockholder equity (adjusted for stock splits). The result is shown as a percentage. Investors use ROE as a measure of how a company is using its money. ROE may be decomposed into return on assets (ROA) multiplied by financial leverage (total assets/total equity).

Return on investment (ROI):
Generally, book income as a proportion of net book value.

Return on total assets: The ratio of earnings available to common stockholders to total assets.

Return-to-maturity expectations:
A variant of pure expectations theory which suggests that the return that an investor will realize by rolling over short-term bonds to some investment horizon will be the same as holding a zero-coupon bond with a maturity that is the same as that investment horizon.

An increase in the foreign exchange value of a currency that is pegged to other currencies or gold.

Revenue bond: A bond issued by a municipality to finance either a project or an enterprise where the issuer pledges to the bondholders the revenues generated by the operating projects financed, for instance, hospital revenue bonds and sewer revenue bonds.

Revenue fund:
A fund accounting for all revenues from an enterprise financed by a municipal revenue bond.

Reverse mortgage: Unlike an ordinary mortgage, which involves payments by the borrower to the lender, a reverse mortgage involves payments by the lender to the borrower. It is an arrangement whereby homeowners get cash (usually in the form of monthly payments or a lump sum) in return for a mortgage on their home, which is used as security against the loan. This is a strategy sometimes used by retired homeowners who need to supplement their income. A reverse mortgage is one way of tapping into the value of a home.

Reverse price risk:
A type of mortgage-pipeline risk that occurs when a lender commits to sell loans to an investor at rates prevailing at application but sets the note rates when the borrowers close. The lender is thus exposed to the risk of falling rates.

Reverse repo:
In essence, refers to a repurchase agreement. From the customer's perspective, the customer provides a collateralized loan to the seller.

Reverse Savings Program:
Is a method of implementing an investment savings plan through the use of debt. It is essentially a disciplined cash flow management strategy to ensure that your savings capacity will be utilized effectively. It involves borrowing an amount to invest upfront and then systematically paying off the debt with monthly payments. This methodology may be implemented to allow for the purchase of investments not limited to smaller monthly payments, but also as a forced savings mechanism. This type of plan has inherent risks associated with the use of leverage and should only be utilized if all of those risks are fully understood.

Reverse stock split: A proportionate decrease in the number of shares, but not the value of shares of stock held by shareholders. Shareholders maintain the same percentage of equity as before the split. For example, a 1-for-3 split would result in stockholders owning 1 share for every 3 shares owned before the split. After the reverse split, the firm's stock price is, in this example, worth three times the pre-reverse split price. A firm generally institutes a reverse split to boost its stock's market price and attract investors.

Reversing trade: Entering the opposite side of a currently held futures position to close out the position.

Revolving credit agreement: A legal commitment wherein a bank promises to lend a customer up to a specified maximum amount during a specified period.

Revolving line of credit: A bank line of credit on which the customer pays a commitment fee and can take down and repay funds according to his needs. Normally the line involves a firm commitment from the bank for a period of several years.

Reward-to-volatility ratio:
Ratio of excess return to portfolio standard deviation.

Rho: The sensitivity of the option price to a change in the interest rate.

Riding the yield curve: Buying long-term bonds in anticipation of capital gains as yields fall with the declining maturity of the bonds.

Right: A short-lived (typically less than 90 days) call option for purchasing additional stock in a firm, issued by the firm to all its shareholders on a pro rata basis.

The temporary privilege granted to a company's existing common shareholders to acquire additional common shares directly from the company at a stated price. The price is usually at a discount to the market price of the common stock on the day the rights are issued, and the rights only are good within a specified time period. Rights of listed companies trade on stock exchanges from the ex-rights date until their expiry, so holders can either exercise the rights or they can sell them.

Right of Rescission:
The right of a purchaser of a new issue to withdraw from the purchase agreement within the specific province's applicable time limits if the prospectus contained an untrue statement or omitted a material fact.

Right of Withdrawal: The right of a purchaser of a new issue to withdraw from the purchase agreement within two business days after receiving the prospectus.

Rights offering:
Issuance of "rights" to current shareholders allowing them to purchase additional shares, usually at a discount to market price. Shareholders who do not exercise these rights are usually diluted by the offering. Rights are often transferable, allowing the holder to sell them on the open market to others who may wish to exercise them. Rights offerings are particularly common to closed-end funds, which cannot otherwise issue additional common stock.

Rights-on: Shares trading with rights attached to them.

Trading arenas located on the floor of an exchange in which traders execute orders. Sometimes called a pit.

Risk: Typically defined as the standard deviation of the return on total investment. The degree of an uncertainty of return on an asset.

Could describe various types of investment risks, including re- investment risk, loss of capital, loss of purchasing power and liquidity risk. A diversified portfolio manages all of these types of risks.

Risk-adjusted profitability: A probability used to determine a "sure" expected value (sometimes called a certainty equivalent) that would be equivalent to the actual risky expected value.

Risk arbitrage: Speculation on perceived mispriced securities, usually in connection with merger and acquisition deals. Mike Donatelli, John Demasi, Frank Cohane, and Scott Lewis are all hardcore arbs. They had a huge BT/MCI position in the summer of 1997 and came out smelling like roses.

Risk averse: A risk-averse investor is one who, when faced with two investments with the same expected return but two different risks, prefers the one with the lower risk.

Risk classes: Groups of projects that have approximately the same amount of risk.

Risk controlled arbitrage: A self-funding, self-hedged series of transactions that generally utilize mortgage securities as the primary assets.

Risk indexes:
Categories of risk used to calculate fundamental beta, including (1) market variability, (2) earnings variability, (3) low valuation, (4) immaturity and smallness, (5) growth orientation, and (6) financial risk.

Risk lover: A person willing to accept lower expected returns on prospects with higher amounts of risk.

Risk management: The process of identifying and evaluating risks and selecting and managing techniques to adapt to risk exposures.

Risk neutral: Insensitive to risk.

Risk prone:
Willing to pay money to transfer risk from others.

Risk premium: The reward for holding the risky market portfolio rather than the risk-free asset. The spread between Treasury and non-Treasury bonds of comparable maturity.

Risk premium approach:
The most common approach for tactical asset allocation to determine the relative valuation of asset classes based on expected returns.

Riskless rate:
The rate earned on a riskless investment, typically the rate earned on the 90-day U.S. Treasury Bill.

Riskless rate of return:
The rate earned on a riskless asset.

Riskless arbitrage: The simultaneous purchase and sale of the same asset to yield a profit.

Riskless or risk-free asset:
An asset whose future return is known today with certainty. The risk-free asset is commonly defined as short-term obligations of the U.S. government.

JP Morgan’s trade name for a VaR methodology and dataset of historical rate volatilities and correlations which can be utilized in employing the methodology.

Risky asset: An asset whose future return is uncertain.

Risk-adjusted return: Return earned on an asset normalized for the amount of risk associated with that asset.

Risk-free asset: An asset whose future return is known today with certainty.

Risk-free rate:
The rate earned on a riskless asset.

Roll over: Reinvest funds received from a maturing security in a new issue of the same or a similar security.

Rollover: Most term loans in the Euromarket are made on a rollover basis, which means that the loan is periodically re-priced at an agreed spread over the appropriate, currently prevailing LIBO rate.

Round lot:
A trading order typically of 100 shares of a stock or some multiple of 100.

Round-trip transactions costs:
Costs of completing a transaction, including commissions, market impact costs, and taxes.

Procedure by which the Long or short position of an individual is offset by an opposite transaction or by accepting or making delivery of the actual financial instrument or physical commodity.

R squared (R2): Square of the correlation coefficient the proportion of the variability in one series that can be explained by the variability of one or more other series.

Rule 144a:
SEC rule allowing qualified institutional buyers to buy and trade unregistered securities.

A run consists of a series of a bid and offers quotes for different securities or maturities. Dealers give to and ask for runs from each other.

Rule 415:
Rule enacted in 1982 that permits firms to file shelf registration statements.