Daily Cover: The material used to cover the working face of a landfill at the close of each day.
Data Quality Objectives (DQOs): Qualitative and quantitative statements of the overall level of uncertainty that a decision-maker will accept in results or decisions based on environmental data. They provide the statistical framework for planning and managing environmental data operations consistent With User's Needs.
Day Ahead Market: The forward market for energy and ancillary services to be supplied during the settlement period of a particular trading day that is conducted by the ISO, the PX, and other Scheduling Coordinators. This market closes with the ISO's acceptance of the final day-ahead schedule.
Day Ahead Schedule: Day-ahead Schedule A schedule prepared by a Scheduling Coordinator or the ISO before the beginning of a trading day. This schedule indicates the levels of generation and demand scheduled for each settlement period of that trading day.
Day Lighting: The use of sunlight to supplement or replace electric lighting.
Day Lighting Control: A control system that varies the light output of an electric lighting system in response to variations in available daylight.
Day Tank: Another name for a deaerating tank.
DDT: The first chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide chemical name: Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane. It has a half-life of 15 years and can collect in fatty tissues of certain animals. EPA banned registration and interstate sale of DDT for virtually all but emergency uses in the United States in 1972 because of its persistence in the environment and accumulation in the food chain.
Dead End: The end of a water main which is not connected to other parts of the distribution system.
Deadmen: Anchors drilled or cemented into the ground to provide additional reactive mass for DP sampling rigs.
Decant: To draw off the upper layer of liquid after the heaviest material (a solid or another liquid) has settled.
Decay Products: Degraded radioactive materials, often referred to as "daughters" or "progeny"; radon decay products of most concern from a public health standpoint are polonium-214 and polonium-218.
Dechlorination: Removal of chlorine from a substance.
Decomposition: The breakdown of matter by bacteria and fungi, changing the chemical makeup and physical appearance of materials.
Decontamination: Removal of harmful substances such as noxious chemicals, harmful bacteria or other organisms, or radioactive material from exposed individuals, rooms and furnishings in buildings, or the exterior environment.
Deep-Well Injection: Deposition of raw or treated, filtered hazardous waste by pumping it into deep wells, where it is contained in the pores of the permeable subsurface rock.
Deep Mining: Extraction of coal or minerals at depths greater than 1,000 feet. Coal usually is deep-mined at not more than 1,500 feet.
Deflocculating Agent: A material added to a suspension to prevent settling.
Defluoridation: The removal of excess fluoride in drinking water to prevent the staining of teeth.
Defoliant: An herbicide that removes leaves from trees and growing plants.
Degasification: A water treatment that removes dissolved gasses from the water.
Degree-Day: A rough measure used to estimate the amount of heating required in a given area; is defined as the difference between the mean daily temperature and 65 degrees Fahrenheit. Degree-days are also calculated to estimate cooling requirements.
Delta: A difference in temperature. Often used in the context of the difference between the design indoor temperature and the outdoor temperature.
Demand: The rate at which energy is delivered to loads and scheduling points by generation, transmission or distribution facilities.
Demand Bid: Demand Bid A bid into the PX indicating a quantity of energy or an ancillary service that an eligible customer is willing to purchase and, if relevant, the maximum price that the customer is willing to pay.
Demand Billing: The electric capacity requirement for which a large user pays. It may be based on the customer's peak demand during the contract year, on a previous maximum or on an agreed minimum. Measured in kilowatts.
Demand Charge: The sum to be paid by a large electricity consumer for its peak usage level.
Demand Side Management (DSM): The methods used to manage energy demand including energy efficiency, load management, fuel substitution and load building.
Demand Side Waste Management: Planning, implementation, and evaluation of utility-sponsored programs to influence the amount or timing of customers' energy use. Prices whereby consumers use purchasing decisions to communicate to product manufacturers that they prefer environmentally sound products packaged with the least amount of waste, made from recycled or recyclable materials, and containing no hazardous substances.
Demineralization: A treatment process that removes dissolved minerals from water.
Demonstration: The application and integration of a new product or service into an existing or new system. Most commonly, demonstration involves the construction and operation of a new electric technology interconnected with the electric utility system to demonstrate how it interacts with the system. This includes the impacts the technology may have on the system and the impacts that the larger utility system might have on the functioning of the technology.
Denitrification: The biological reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas by denitrifying bacteria in soil.
Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL): Non-aqueous phase liquids such as chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents or petroleum fractions with a specific gravity greater than 1.0 that sink through the water column until they reach a confining layer. Because they are at the bottom of aquifers instead of floating on the water table, typical monitoring wells do not indicate their presence.
Density: A measure of how heavy a specific volume of a solid, liquid, or gas is in comparison to water, depending on the chemical.
Dependable Capacity: The system's ability to carry the electric power for the time interval and period specified. Dependable capacity is determined by such factors as capability, operating power factor and portion of the load the station is to supply.
Depletable Energy Sources: 1) electricity purchased from a public utility 2) energy obtained from burning coal, oil, natural gas or liquefied petroleum gasses. DEREGULATION - The elimination of regulation from a previously regulated industry or sector of an industry.
Depletion Curve: In hydraulics, a graphical representation of water depletion from storage-stream channels, surface soil, and groundwater. A depletion curve can be drawn for base flow, direct runoff, or total flow.
Depressurization: A condition that occurs when the air pressure inside a structure is lower that the air pressure outdoors. Depressurization can occur when household appliances such as fireplaces or furnaces, that consume or exhaust house air, are not supplied with enough makeup air. Radon may be drawn into a house more rapidly under depressurized conditions.
Derivatives: A specialized security or contract that has no intrinsic overall value, but whose value is based on an underlying security or factor as an index. A generic term that, in the energy field, may include options, futures, forwards, etc.
Dermal Absorption/Penetration: Process by which a chemical penetrates the skin and enters the body as an internal dose.
Dermal Exposure: Contact between a chemical and the skin.
Dermal Toxicity: The ability of a pesticide or toxic chemical to poison people or animals by contact with the skin.
DES: A synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol is used as a growth stimulant in food animals. Residues in meat are thought to be carcinogenic.
Desalination: [Desalinization] (1) Removing salts from the ocean or brackish water by using various technologies. (2) Removal of salts from the soil by artificial means, usually leaching.
Desiccant: A chemical agent that absorbs moisture; some desiccants are capable of drying out plants or insects, causing death.
Design Capacity: The average daily flow that a treatment plant or other facility is designed to accommodate.
Design for the Environment (DfE): A concept or philosophy applied to the design process that advocates the reduction of environmental and human health impacts through materials selection and design strategies.
Design Value: The monitored reading used by EPA to determine an area's air quality status; e.g., for ozone, the fourth highest reading measured over the most recent three years is the design value.
Designated Pollutant: An air pollutant which is neither a criterion nor hazardous pollutant, as described in the Clean Air Act, but for which new source performance standards exist. The Clean Air Act does require states to control these pollutants, which include acid mist, total reduced sulfur (TRS), and fluorides.
Designated Uses: Those water uses identified in state water quality standards that must be achieved and maintained as required under the Clean Water Act. Uses can include cold water fisheries, public water supply, and irrigation.
Designed for Disassembly: The design and engineering of a product so that it can be dismantled for easier maintenance, repair recovery and reuse of components and materials.
Designer Bugs: Popular term for microbes developed through biotechnology that can degrade specific toxic chemicals at their source in toxic waste dumps or in ground water.
Destination Facility: The facility to which regulated medical waste is shipped for treatment and destruction, incineration, and/or disposal.
Destratification: Vertical mixing within a lake or reservoir to totally or partially eliminate separate layers of temperature, plant, or animal life.
Destroyed Medical Waste: Regulated medical waste that has been ruined, torn apart, or mutilated through thermal treatment, melting, shredding, grinding, tearing, or breaking, so that it is no longer generally recognized as medical waste, but has not yet been treated (excludes compacted regulated medical waste).
Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE): A percentage that represents the number of molecules of a compound removed or destroyed in an incinerator relative to the number of molecules entering the system (e.g. a DRE of 99.99 percent means that 9,999 molecules are destroyed for every 10,000 that enter; 99.99 percent is known as "four nines." For some pollutants, the RCRA removal requirement may be as stringent as "six nines").
Destruction Facility: A facility that destroys regulated medical waste.
Desulfurization: Removal of sulfur from fossil fuels to reduce pollution.
Detectable Leak Rate: The smallest leak (from a storage tank), expressed in terms of gallons- or liters-per-hour, that a test can reliably discern with a certain probability of detection or false alarm.
Detection Criterion: A predetermined rule to ascertain whether a tank is leaking or not. Most volumetric tests use a threshold value as the detection criterion.
Detection Limit: The lowest concentration of a chemical that can reliably be distinguished from a zero concentration.
Detention Time: 1. The theoretically calculated time required for a small amount of water to pass through a tank at a given rate of flow. 2. The actual time that a small amount of water is in a settling basin, flocculating basin, or rapid-mix chamber. 3. In storage reservoirs, the length of time water will be held before being used.
Detergent: Synthetic washing agent that helps to remove dirt and oil. Some contain compounds which kill useful bacteria and encourage algae growth when they are in wastewater that reaches receiving waters.
Development Effects: Adverse effects such as altered growth, structural abnormality, functional deficiency, or death observed in a developing organism.
Dewater: 1. Remove or separate a portion of the water in a sludge or slurry to dry the sludge so it can be handled and disposed of. 2. Remove or drain the water from a tank or trench.
Diatomaceous Earth (Diatomite): A chalk-like material (fossilized diatoms) used to filter out solid waste in wastewater treatment plants; also used as an active ingredient in some powdered pesticides.
Diazinon: An insecticide. In 1986, EPA banned its use in open areas such as sod farms and golf courses because it posed a danger to migratory birds. The ban did not apply to agricultural, home lawn or commercial establishment uses.
Dibenzofurans: A group of organic compounds, some of which are toxic.
Dicofol: A pesticide used on citrus fruits.
Diesel Oil: Fuel for diesel engines obtained from the distillation of petroleum. It is composed chiefly of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Its volatility is similar to that of gas oil. Its efficiency is measured by cetane number.
Diffuse Radiation: Solar radiation, scattered by water vapor, dust, and other particles as it passes through the atmosphere so that it appears to come from the entire sky. Diffuse radiation is higher on hazy or overcast days than on clear days.
Diffused Air: A type of aeration that forces oxygen into sewage by pumping air through perforated pipes inside a holding tank.
Diffusion: The movement of suspended or dissolved particles (or molecules) from a more concentrated to a less concentrated area. The process tends to distribute the particles or molecules more uniformly.
Digestate: The residue or "digested" waste produced by methane production from organic or biodegradable waste. Digestate is made up of excess bacteria, organic matter that has not broken down and mineralized matter. After treatment, it can be used as compost.
Digester: In wastewater treatment, a closed tank; in solid-waste conversion, a unit in which bacterial action is induced and accelerated in order to break down organic matter and establish the proper carbon to nitrogen ratio.
Digestion: The biochemical decomposition of organic matter, resulting in partial gasification, liquefaction, and mineralization of pollutants.
Dike: A low wall that can act as a barrier to prevent a spill from spreading.
Diluent: Any liquid or solid material used to dilute or carry an active ingredient.
Dilution Ratio: The relationship between the volume of water in a stream and the volume of incoming water. It affects the ability of the stream to assimilate waste.
Dimictic: Lakes and reservoirs that freeze over and normally go through two stratifications and two mixing cycles a year.
Dinocap: A fungicide used primarily by apple growers to control summer diseases. EPA proposed restrictions on its use in 1986 when laboratory tests found it caused birth defects in rabbits.
Dinoseb: A herbicide that is also used as a fungicide and insecticide. It was banned by EPA in 1986 because it posed the risk of birth defects and sterility.
Dioxin: Any of a family of compounds known chemically as dibenzo-p-dioxins. Concern about them arises from their potential toxicity as contaminants in commercial products. Tests on laboratory animals indicate that it is one of the more toxic anthropogenic (man-made) compounds.
Dioxins: The generic name of a family of chlorinated organic substances that are a byproduct of combustion processes. Dioxins are created by the combustion of products containing chlorine. Sources include cement plants, herbicide and pesticide manufacturing, paper pulp bleaching, foundries, metallurgy, steelmaking, waste incinerators, etc. They can also be produced by hard-to-evaluate natural sources such as forest fires and volcanic eruptions and by scattered sources such as open-air burning, i.e., garden, chimney and pit fires. Of the 210 existing dioxins, 17 are considered toxic.
Direct Access: The ability of a retail customer to purchase commodity electricity directly from the wholesale market rather than through a local distribution utility.
Direct Current (DC): Electricity that flows continuously in the same direction.
Direct Discharger: A municipal or industrial facility which introduces pollution through a defined conveyance or system such as outlet pipes; a point source.
Direct Energy Conversion: Production of electricity from an energy source without transferring the energy to a working fluid or steam. For example, photovoltaic cells transform light directly into electricity. Direct conversion systems have no moving parts and usually, produce direct current.
Direct Expansion (Refrigeration): Any system that, in operation between an environment where heat is absorbed (heat source), and an environment into which unwanted heat is directed (heat sink) at two different temperatures, is able to absorb heat from the heat source at the lower temperature and reject heat to the heat sink at the higher temperature. The cooling effect is obtained directly from a fluid called a refrigerant that absorbs heat at a low temperature and pressure, and transfers heat at a higher temperature and higher pressure.
Direct Filtration: A method of treating water which consists of the addition of coagulant chemicals, flash mixing, coagulation, minimal flocculation, and filtration. Sedimentation is not used.
Direct Push: Technology used for performing subsurface investigations by driving, pushing, and/or vibrating small-diameter hollow steel rods into the ground/ Also known as direct drive, drive point, or push technology.
Direct Radiation: Radiation that has traveled a straight path from the sun, as opposed to diffuse radiation.
Direct Runoff: Water that flows over the ground surface or through the ground directly into streams, rivers, and lakes.
Direct Solar Gain: Solar energy collected from the sun (as heat) in a building through windows, walls, skylights, etc.
Disaggregation: The functional separation of the vertically integrated utility into smaller, individually owned business units (i.e., generation, dispatch/control, transmission, distribution). The terms "de-integration," "disintegration" and "de-lamination" are sometimes used to mean the same thing.
Discharge: Flow of surface water in a stream or canal or the outflow of ground water from a flowing artesian well, ditch, or spring.
Disinfectant: A chemical or physical process that kills pathogenic organisms in water, air, or on surfaces. Chlorine is often used to disinfect sewage treatment effluent, water supplies, wells, and swimming pools.
Disinfectant By-Product: A compound formed by the reaction of a disinfectant such as chlorine with organic material in the water supply; a chemical by-product of the disinfection process.
Disinfectant Time: The time it takes water to move from the point of disinfectant application (or the previous point of residual disinfectant measurement) to a point before or at the point where the residual disinfectant is measured. In pipelines, the time is calculated by dividing the internal volume of the pipe by the maximum hourly flow rate; within mixing basins and storage reservoirs it is determined by tracer studies of an equivalent demonstration.
Dispatch: The operating control of an integrated electric system to: Assign generation to specific generating plants and other sources of supply to effect the most reliable and economical supply as the total of the significant area loads rises or falls. Control operations and maintenance of high-voltage lines, substations, and equipment, including administration of safety procedures. Operate the interconnection. Schedule energy transactions with other interconnected electric utilities.
Dispersant: A chemical agent used to break up concentrations of organic material such as spilled oil.
Displacement Savings: Saving realized by displacing purchases of natural gas or electricity from a local utility by using landfill gas for power and heat.
Disposables: Consumer products, other items, and packaging used once or a few times and discarded.
Disposal: Final placement or destruction of toxic, radioactive, or other wastes; surplus or banned pesticides or other chemicals; polluted soils; and drums containing hazardous materials from removal actions or accidental releases. Disposal may be accomplished through the use of approved secure landfills, surface impoundments, land farming, deep-well injection, ocean dumping, or incineration.
Disposal Facilities: Repositories for solid waste, including landfills and combustors intended for permanent containment or destruction of waste materials. Excludes transfer stations and composting facilities.
Disposal Fee: A fee charged for the amount of waste disposed of by customers at a landfill (also see Tipping Fee).
Dissolved Gas: Natural gas that can be developed for commercial use, and which is found mixed with oil in naturally occurring underground formations.
Dissolved Oxygen (DO): The oxygen freely available in water, vital to fish and other aquatic life and for the prevention of odors. DO levels are considered a most important indicator of a water body's ability to support desirable aquatic life. Secondary and advanced waste treatment is generally designed to ensure adequate DO in waste-receiving waters.
Dissolved Solids: Disintegrated organic and inorganic material in water. Excessive amounts make water unfit to drink or use in industrial processes.
Distillation: The act of purifying liquids through boiling, so that the steam or gaseous vapors condense to a pure liquid. Pollutants and contaminants may remain in a concentrated residue.
Distributed Generation: A distributed generation system involves small amounts of generation located on a utility's distribution system for the purpose of meeting local (substation level) peak loads and/or displacing the need to build additional (or upgrade) local distribution lines.
Distribution: The delivery of electricity to the retail customer's home or business through low voltage distribution lines.
Distribution System (Electric Utility): The substations, transformers, and lines that convey electricity from high-power transmission lines to ultimate consumers.
Distribution Utility: The regulated electric utility entity that constructs and maintains the distribution wires connecting the transmission grid to the final customer. The Disco can also perform other services such as aggregating customers, purchasing a power supply, and transmission services for customers, billing customers and reimbursing suppliers, and offering other regulated or non-regulated energy services to retail customers. The "wires" and "customer service" functions provided by a distribution utility could be split so that two totally separate entities are used to supply these two types of distribution services.
Disturbance: Any event or series of events that disrupt ecosystem, community, or population structure and alters the physical environment.
Diversion: 1. Use of part of a stream flow as water supply. 2. A channel with a supporting ridge on the lower side constructed across a slope to divert water at a non-erosive velocity to sites where it can be used and disposed of.
Diversion Rate: The percentage of waste materials diverted from traditional disposal such as landfilling or incineration to be recycled, composted, or re-used.
Divestiture: The stripping off of one utility function from the others by selling (spinning-off) or in some other way changing the ownership of the assets related to that function. Most commonly associated with spinning-off generation assets so they are no longer owned by the shareholders that own the transmission and distribution assets.
DNA Hybridization: Use of a segment of DNA, called a DNA probe, to identify its complementary DNA; used to detect specific genes.
Dobson Unit (DU): Units of ozone level measurement. measurement of ozone levels. If for example, 100 DU of ozone were brought to the earth's surface they would form a layer one millimeter thick. Ozone levels vary geographically, even in the absence of ozone depletion.
Dose: The amount of ionizing radiation energy absorbed per unit mass of irradiated material at a specific location, such as a part of a human body.
Dosimeter: An instrument to measure dosage; many so-called dosimeters actually measure exposure rather than dosage. Dosimetry is the process or technology of measuring and/or estimating dosage.
DOT Reportable Quantity: The quantity of a substance specified in a U.S. Department of Transportation regulation that triggers labeling, packaging and other requirements related to shipping such substances.
Down Cycling: The process of recycling in such a way those new products are of lesser economic value. An example would be turning nylon face fiber into park benches.
Downgradient: The direction that groundwater flows; similar to "downstream" for surface water.
Downstream: A term used in the petroleum industry referring to the refining, transportation and marketing side of the business.
Downstream Processors: Industries dependent on crop production (e.g. canneries and food processors).
Draft: 1. the act of drawing or removing water from a tank or reservoir. 2. The water which is drawn or removed.
Drainage: Improving the productivity of agricultural land by removing excess water from the soil by such means as ditches or subsurface drainage tiles.
Drainage Basin: The area of land that drains water, sediment, and dissolved materials to a common outlet at some point along a stream channel.
Drainage Well: A well drilled to carry excess water off agricultural fields. Because they act as a funnel from the surface to the groundwater below, drainage wells can contribute to groundwater pollution.
Drawdown: 1. The drop in the water table or level of water in the ground when water is being pumped from a well. 2. The amount of water used from a tank or reservoir. 3. The drop in the water level of a tank or reservoir.
Dredging: The removal of mud from the bottom of water bodies. This can disturb the ecosystem and causes silting that kills aquatic life. Dredging of contaminated mud can expose biota to heavy metals and other toxics. Dredging activities may be subject to regulation under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act.
Drilling Fluid: Fluid used to lubricate the bit and convey drill cuttings to the surface with rotary drilling equipment. Usually composed of bentonite slurry or muddy water. Can become contaminated, leading to cross contamination, and may require special disposal. Not used with DP methods
Drinking Water Equivalent Level: Protective level of exposure related to potentially non-carcinogenic effects of chemicals that are also known to cause cancer.
Drive Casing: Heavy duty steel casing is driven along with the sampling tool in cased DP systems. Keeps the hole open between sampling runs and is not removed until the last sample has been collected.
Drive Point Profiler: An exposed groundwater DP system used to collect multiple depth-discrete groundwater samples. Ports in the tip of the probe connected to an internal stainless steel or Teflon tube that extends to the surface. Samples are collected via suction or airlift methods. Deionized water is pumped down through the ports to prevent plugging while driving the tool to the next sampling depth.
Drop-off: Recyclable materials collection method in which individuals bring them to a designated collection site.
Dry Bulb Temperature: A measure of the sensible temperature of the air.
Dry Hole: A drilled well that does not yield gas and/or oil quantities or condition to support commercial production; also applied to gas that has been produced and from which liquid components have been removed.
Dual-Duct System: A central plant heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC ) system that produces conditioned air at two temperatures and humidity levels. The air is then supplied through two independent duct systems to the points of usage where mixing occurs.
Dual-Fuel or Bi-Fuel Vehicle: Refers to a vehicle capable of operating on two different fuels, in distinct fuelling systems, such as compressed natural gas and gasoline.
Dual-Phase Extraction: Active withdrawal of both liquid and gas phases from a well usually involving the use of a vacuum pump.
Duct: A passageway made of sheet metal or other suitable material used for conveying air or other gas at relatively low pressures.
Dump: A site used to dispose of solid waste without environmental controls.
Dump: Excess hydropower that cannot be stored or conserved. Also, know as SPILL ENERGY.
Dumpster: A generic term used for front-load and rear-load containers.
Dustfall Jar: An open container used to collect large particles from the air for measurement and analysis.
Dynamometer: A device used to place a load on an engine and measure its performance.
Dystrophic Lakes: Acidic, shallow bodies of water that contain much humus and/or other organic matter; contain many plants but fish.