Sacrificial Anode: An easily corroded material deliberately installed in a pipe or intake to give it up (sacrifice it) to corrosion while the rest of the water supply facility remains relatively corrosion-free.
Sae Viscosity Number: A system established by the Society of Automotive Engineers for classifying crankcase oils and automotive transmission and differential lubricants according to their viscosities.
Safe: Condition of exposure under which there is a practical certainty that no harm will result to exposed individuals.
Safe Water: Water that does not contain harmful bacteria, toxic materials, or chemicals, and is considered safe for drinking even if it may have taste, odor, color, and certain mineral problems.
Safe Yield: The annual amount of water that can be taken from a source of supply over a period of years without depleting that source beyond its ability to be replenished naturally in "wet years."
Safener: A chemical added to a pesticide to keep it from injuring plants.
Salinity: The percentage of salt in water.
Salt Water Intrusion: The invasion of fresh surface or ground water by salt water. If it comes from the ocean it may be called sea water intrusion.
Salts: Minerals that water picks up as it passes through the air, over and under the ground, or from households and industry.
Salvage: The utilization of waste materials.
Sampling Frequency: The interval between the collection of successive samples.
Sanctions: Actions taken by the federal government for failure to provide or implement a State Implementation Plan (SIP). Such action may include withholding of highway funds and a ban on construction of new sources of potential pollution.
Sand Filters: Devices that remove some suspended solids from sewage. Air and bacteria decompose additional wastes filtering through the sand so that cleaner water drains from the bed.
Sanitary landfill: An engineered method of disposing of solid waste on land, in a manner that meets most of the standard specifications, including sound siting, extensive site preparation, proper leachate and gas management and monitoring, compaction, daily and final cover, complete access control, and record-keeping.
Sanitary Sewers: Underground pipes that carry off only domestic or industrial waste, not storm water.
Sanitary Survey: An on-site review of the water sources, facilities, equipment, operation and maintenance of a public water system to evaluate the adequacy of those elements for producing and distributing safe drinking water.
Sanitary Water (Also known as gray water): Water discharged from sinks, showers, kitchens, or other non-industrial operations, but not from commodes.
Sanitation: Control of physical factors in the human environment that could harm development, health, or survival.
Saprolite: A soft, clay-rich, thoroughly decomposed rock formed in place by chemical weathering of igneous or metamorphic rock. Forms in humid, tropical, or subtropical climates.
Saprophytes: Organisms living on dead or decaying organic matter that help natural decomposition of organic matter in water.
Saturated Zone: The area below the water table where all open spaces are filled with water under pressure equal to or greater than that of the atmosphere.
Saturation: The condition of a liquid when it has taken into solution the maximum possible quantity of a given substance at a given temperature and pressure.
Scale House: A scale house can be found at either a landfill or a transfer station. It is the office, located a short distance from the main entrance, where all incoming vehicles must stop to be weighed or measured and receive a disposal ticket.
Scheduling Coordinator: Scheduling coordinators (SCs) submit balanced schedules and provide settlement-ready meter data to the ISO. Scheduling coordinators also:
• Settle with generators and retailers, the PX and the ISO
• Maintain a year-round, 24-hour scheduling center
• Provide non-emergency operating instructions to generators and retailers
• Transfer schedules in and out of the PX. (The PX is a marketplace. As bids are accepted, power is being bought and sold. Once a bid is accepted, the power sold is "transferred out" of the PX, since is it no longer available. The power that is available for sale is "transferred in" to the PX. These transfers may also take place directly between the buyer and seller, without the involvement of the PX.)
The PX is considered a scheduling coordinator
Science Advisory Board (SAB): A group of external scientists who advise EPA on science and policy.
Scrap: Materials discarded from manufacturing operations that may be suitable for reprocessing.
Scrap Metal Processor: The intermediate operating facility where recovered metal is sorted, cleaned of contaminants, and prepared for recycling.
Screen: A type of large sieve used to sort and separate different types of waste.
Screening: Use of screens to remove coarse floating and suspended solids from sewage.
Screening Risk Assessment: A risk assessment performed with few data and many assumptions to identify exposures that should be evaluated more carefully for potential risk.
Scrubber: An air pollution device that uses a spray of water or reactant or a dry process to trap pollutants in emissions.
Seasonal Efficiency (SE): A measure of the percentage of heat from the combustion of gas and from associated electrical equipment which is transferred to the space being heated during a year under specified conditions.
Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER): The total cooling output of a central air conditioning unit in Btus during its normal usage period for cooling divided by the total electrical energy input in watt-hours during the same period, as determined using specified federal test procedures.
Secondary Drinking Water Regulations: Non-enforceable regulations applying to public water systems and specifying the maximum contamination levels that, in the judgment of EPA, are required to protect the public welfare. These regulations apply to any contaminants that may adversely affect the odor or appearance of such water and consequently may cause people served by the system to discontinue its use.
Secondary Effect: Action of a stressor on supporting components of the ecosystem, which in turn impact the ecological component of concern.
Secondary Materials: Materials that have been manufactured and used at least once and are to be used again.
Secondary Standards: National ambient air quality standards designed to protect the welfare, including effects on soils, water, crops, vegetation, man-made (anthropogenic) materials, animals, wildlife, weather, visibility, and climate; damage to property; transportation hazards; economic values, and personal comfort and well-being.
Secondary Treatment: The second step in most publicly owned waste treatment systems in which bacteria consume the organic parts of the waste. It is accomplished by bringing together waste, bacteria, and oxygen in trickling filters or in the activated sludge process. This treatment removes floating and settleable solids and about 90 percent of the oxygen-demanding substances and suspended solids. Disinfection is the final stage of secondary treatment.
Secure Landfill: A disposal facility designed to permanently isolate wastes from the environment. This entails burial of the wastes in a landfill that includes clay and/ or synthetic liners, leachate collection, gas collection (in cases where gas is generated), and an impermeable cover.
Secure Maximum Contaminant Level: Maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water delivered to the free-flowing outlet of the ultimate user, or of contamination resulting from corrosion of piping and plumbing caused by water quality.
Securitize: The aggregation of contracts for the purchase of the power output from various energy projects into one pool which then offers shares for sale in the investment market. This strategy diversifies project risks from what they would be if each project were financed individually, thereby reducing the cost of financing. Fannie Mae performs such a function in the home mortgage market.
Sediment: Topsoil, sand, and minerals washed from the land into water, usually after rain or snow melt.
Sediment Yield: The quantity of sediment arriving at a specific location.
Sedimentation: Letting solids settle out of wastewater by gravity during treatment.
Sedimentation Tanks: Wastewater tanks in which floating wastes are skimmed off and settled solids are removed for disposal.
Sediments: Soil, sand, and minerals washed from land into water, usually after rain. They pile up in reservoirs, rivers, and harbors, destroying fish and wildlife habitat, and clouding the water so that sunlight cannot reach aquatic plants. Careless farming, mining, and building activities will expose sediment materials, allowing them to wash off the land after rainfall.
Seed Protectant: A chemical applied before planting to protect seeds and seedlings from disease or insects.
Seepage: Percolation of water through the soil from unlined canals, ditches, laterals, watercourses, or water storage facilities.
Selective Pesticide: A chemical designed to affect only certain types of pests, leaving other plants and animals unharmed.
Self-Generation: A generation facility dedicated to serving a particular retail customer, usually located on the customer's premises. The facility may either be owned directly by the retail customer or owned by a third party with a contractual arrangement to provide electricity to meet some or all of the customer's load.
Self-Service Wheeling: Primarily an accounting policy comparable to net-billing or running the meter backward. An entity owns generation that produces excess electricity at one site that is used at another site owned by the same entity. It is given billing credit for the excess electricity (displacing retail electricity costs minus wheeling charges) on the bills for its other sites.
Semi-Confined Aquifer: An aquifer partially confined by soil layers of low permeability through which recharge and discharge can still occur.
Semivolatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that volatilize slowly at standard temperature (20 degrees C and 1 atm pressure).
Senescence: The aging process. It is Sometimes used to describe lakes or other bodies of water in advanced stages of eutrophication. It is also used to describe plants and animals.
Sensible Heat: Heat that results in a temperature change.
Septage: Sludge removed from a septic tank (a chamber that holds human excreta).
Septic System: An on-site system designed to treat and dispose of domestic sewage. A typical septic system consists of the tank that receives waste from a residence or business and a system of tile lines or a pit for disposal of the liquid effluent (sludge) that remains after decomposition of the solids by bacteria in the tank and must be pumped out periodically.
Septic Tank: An underground storage tank for wastes from homes not connected to a sewer line. Waste goes directly from the home to the tank.
Service Area: Any contiguous geographic area serviced by the same electric utility.
Service Connector: The pipe that carries tap water from a public water main to a building.
Service Line Sample: A one-liter sample of water that has been standing for at least 6 hours in a service pipeline and is collected according to federal regulations.
Service Pipe: The pipeline extending from the water main to the building served or to the consumer's system.
Set-Back: Setting a thermometer to a lower temperature when the building is unoccupied to reduce consumption of heating energy. Also, refers to setting the thermometer to a higher temperature during unoccupied periods in the cooling season.
Set-Out Container: A box or bucket used for residential waste that is placed outside for collection.
Set Point: Scheduled operating level for each generating unit or other resource scheduled to run in the Hour-ahead Schedule.
Settleable Solids: Material heavy enough to sink to the bottom of a wastewater treatment tank.
Settlement: The process of financial settlement for products and services purchased and sold. Each settlement involves a price and quantity. Both the ISO and PX may perform settlement functions.
Settling Chamber: A series of screens placed in the way of flue gasses to slow the stream of air, thus helping gravity to pull particles into a collection device.
Settling Tank: A holding area for wastewater, where heavier particles sink to the bottom for removal and disposal.
Sewage: The waste and wastewater produced by residential and commercial sources and discharged into sewers.
Sewage Sludge: Sludge produced at a Publicly Owned Treatment Works, the disposal of which is regulated under the Clean Water Act.
Sewage Sludge: A semi-liquid residue that settles to the bottom of canals and pipes carrying sewage or industrial wastewaters, or in the bottom of tanks used in treating wastewaters.
Sewer: A channel or conduit that carries wastewater and storm-water runoff from the source to a treatment plant or receiving stream. "Sanitary" sewers carry household, industrial, and commercial waste. "Storm" sewers carry runoff from rain or snow. "Combined" sewers handle both.
Sewer Cleaning Waste: Waste produced by the cleaning and maintenance of wastewater and storm water collection systems. It is predominantly organic (sludge, fats, waste from screening operations at wastewater treatment plants, oil, grease and night soil, etc.) and mineral waste (wastewater treatment sand and grit, sludge, sewer cleaning sand, residue from dredging rivers and canals).
Sewerage: The entire system of sewage collection, treatment, and disposal.
Shade Screen: A screen affixed to the exterior of a window or other glazed opening, designed to reduce the solar radiation reaching the glazing.
Shading: 1) The protection from heat gains due to direct solar radiation; 2) Shading is provided by (a) permanently attached exterior devices, glazing materials, adherent materials applied to the glazing, or an adjacent building for non-residential buildings, hotels, motels and high-rise apartments, and by (b) devices affixed to the structure for residential buildings.
Shading Coefficient: The ratio of solar heat gain through a specific glazing system to the total solar heat gain through a single layer of clear, double-strength glass.
Shading Coefficient: The amount of the sun's heat transmitted through a given window compared with that of a standard 1/8- inch-thick single pane of glass under the same conditions.
Sharps: Hypodermic needles, syringes (with or without the attached needle), Pasteur pipettes, scalpel blades, blood vials, needles with attached tubing, and culture dishes used in animal or human patient care or treatment, or in medical, research or industrial laboratories. Also included are other types of broken or unbroken glassware that were in contact with infectious agents, such as used slides and cover slips, and unused hypodermic and suture needles, syringes, and scalpel blades.
Shock Load: The arrival at a water treatment plant of raw water containing unusual amounts of algae, colloidal matter. color, suspended solids, turbidity, or other pollutants.
Short-Circuiting: When some of the water in tanks or basins flows faster than the rest; may result in shorter contact, reaction, or settling times than calculated or presumed.
Sick Building Syndrome: Building whose occupants experience acute health and/or comfort effects that appear to be linked to time spent therein, but where no specific illness or cause can be identified. Complaints may be localized in a particular room or zone or may spread throughout the building.
Side Fins: Vertical shading elements mounted on either side of a glazed opening that block direct solar radiation from the lower, lateral portions of the sun's path.
Signal: The volume or product-level change produced by a leak in a tank.
Signal Words: The words used on a pesticide label--Danger, Warning, Caution--to indicate a level of toxicity.
Significant Deterioration: Pollution resulting from a new source in previously "clean" areas.
Significant Municipal Facilities: Those publicly owned sewage treatment plants that discharge a million gallons per day or more and are therefore considered by states to have the potential to substantially affect the quality of receiving waters.
Significant Potential Source of Contamination: A facility or activity that stores, uses, or produces compounds with potential for significant contaminating impact if released into the source water of a public water supply.
Significant Violations: Violations by point source dischargers of sufficient magnitude or duration to be a regulatory priority.
Silt: Sedimentary materials composed of fine or intermediate-sized mineral particles.
Silviculture: Management of forest land for timber.
Single-Breath Canister: Small one-liter canister designed to capture a single breath. Used in air pollutant ingestion research.
Sink: Place in the environment where a compound or material collects.
Sinking: Controlling oil spills by using an agent to trap the oil and sink it to the bottom of the body of water where the agent and the oil are biodegraded.
SIP Call: EPA action requiring a state to resubmit all or part of its State Implementation Plan to demonstrate attainment of the required national ambient air quality standards within the statutory deadline. A SIP Revision is a revision of a SIP altered at the request of EPA or on a state's initiative.
Site: Any location on which a facility is constructed or is proposed to be constructed.
Site Assessment Program: A means of evaluating hazardous waste sites through preliminary assessments and site inspections to develop a Hazard Ranking System score.
Site Energy: The energy consumed at a building location or other end-use site.
Site Inspection: The collection of information from a Superfund site to determine the extent and severity of hazards posed by the site. It follows and is more extensive than a preliminary assessment. The purpose is to gather information necessary to score the site, using the Hazard Ranking System, and to determine if it presents an immediate threat requiring prompt removal.
Site Remediation: Treatment of a contaminated site by removing contaminated solids or liquids or treating them on-site.
Site Safety Plan: A crucial element in all removal actions, it includes information on equipment being used, precautions to be taken, and steps to take in the event of an on-site emergency.
Siting: The process of choosing a location for a facility.
Skimming: Using a machine to remove oil or scum from the surface of the water.
Skylight: Any opening in the roof surface which is glazed with a transparent or translucent material.
Sky Temperature: The equivalent temperature of the clouds, water vapor, and other atmospheric elements that make up the sky to which a surface can radiate heat.
Slow Sand Filtration: Passage of raw water through a bed of sand at low velocity, resulting in substantial removal of chemical and biological contaminants.
Sludge: A semi-solid residue from any of a number of air or water treatment processes; can be a hazardous waste.
Sludge: There are several different types of sludge depending on its source. Primary sludge is generated in the settler-digesters of wastewater treatment plants. It is rich in mineral substances such as microsand and earth and contains organic matter. Physical-chemical sludge is a variant of primary sludge obtained by the addition of reagents such as iron salt and aluminum to agglomerate the fine particles in wastewater. Biosolids, or secondary sludge, is generated by the biological treatment of wastewater. Sludge may be disposed of in four different ways depending on its quality and composition: land application, landfilling, incineration or composting.
Sludge Digester: Tank in which complex organic substances like sewage sludges are biologically dredged. During these reactions, energy is released and much of the sewage is converted to methane, carbon dioxide, and water.
Slurry: A watery mixture of insoluble matter resulting from some pollution control techniques.
Small Quantity Generator (SQG-sometimes referred to as "Squeegee"): Persons or enterprises that produce 220-2200 pounds per month of hazardous waste; they are required to keep more records than conditionally exempt generators. The largest category of hazardous waste generators, SQGs, include automotive shops, dry cleaners, photographic developers, and many other small businesses.
Smelter: A facility that melts or fuses ore, often with an accompanying chemical change, to separate its metal content. Emissions cause pollution. "Smelting" is the process involved.
Smog: Air pollution typically associated with oxidants.
Smog: Originally "smog" meant a mixture of smoke and fog. The definition has expanded to mean air that has restricted visibility due to pollution. Pollution formed in the presence of sunlight is called photochemical smog. According to the U.S. EPA, smog is "a mixture of pollutants, principally ground-level ozone, produced by chemical reactions in the air involving smog-forming chemicals. A major portion of smog-formers come from burning of petroleum-based fuels such as gasoline. Other smog-formers, volatile organic compounds, are found in products such as paints and solvents. Smog can harm health, damage the environment and cause poor visibility. Major smog occurrences are often linked to heavy motor vehicle traffic, the sunshine, high temperatures, and calm winds or temperature inversion (weather condition in which warm air is trapped close to the ground instead of rising). Smog is often worse away from the source of the smog-forming chemicals since the chemical reactions that result in smog occur in the sky while the reacting chemicals are being blown away from their sources by winds."
Smoke: Particles suspended in air after incomplete combustion.
Soft Detergents: Cleaning agents that break down in nature.
Soft Water: Any water that does not contain a significant amount of dissolved minerals such as salts of calcium or magnesium.
Soil Adsorption Field: A sub-surface area containing a trench or bed with clean stones and a system of piping through which treated sewage may seep into the surrounding soil for further treatment and disposal.
Soil and Water Conservation Practices: Control measures consisting of managerial, vegetative, and structural practices to reduce the loss of soil and water.
Soil Conditioner: An organic material like humus or compost that helps soil absorb water, build a bacterial community, and take up mineral nutrients.
Soil Erodibility: An indicator of a soil's susceptibility to raindrop impact, runoff, and other erosive processes.
Soil Gas: Gaseous elements and compounds in the small spaces between particles of the earth and soil. Such gasses can be moved or driven out under pressure.
Soil Moisture: The water contained in the pore space of the unsaturated zone.
Soil Sterilant: A chemical that temporarily or permanently prevents the growth of all plants and animals.
Solar Cell: A photovoltaic cell that can convert light directly into electricity. A typical solar cell uses semiconductors made from silicon.
Solar Collector: A component of an active or passive solar system that absorbs solar radiation to heat a transfer medium which, in turn, supplies heat energy to space or water heating system.
Solar Collector: A surface or device that absorbs solar heat and transfers it to a fluid. The heated fluid then is used to move the heat energy to where it will be useful, such as in water or space heating equipment.
Solar Energy: Heat and light radiated from the sun.
Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI): Established in 1974 and funded by the federal government, the institute's general purpose is to support U.S. Department of Energy's solar energy program and foster the widespread use of all aspects of solar technology, including photovoltaics, solar heating and cooling, solar thermal power generation, wind ocean thermal conversion and biomass conversion.
Solar Heat Gain: Heat added to space due to transmitted and absorbed solar energy.
Solar Heat Gain Factor: An estimate used in calculating cooling loads of the heat gain due to transmitted and absorbed solar energy through 1/8"-thick, clear glass at a specific latitude, time and orientation.
Solar Heating And Hot Water Systems: Solar heating or hot water systems provide two basic functions: (a) capturing the sun's radiant energy, converting it into heat energy, and storing this heat in insulated storage tank(s); and (b) delivering the stored energy as needed to either the domestic hot water or heating system. These components are called the collection and delivery subsystems.
Solar Irradiation: The amount of radiation, both direct and diffuse, that can be received at any given location.
Solar Power: Electricity generated from solar radiation.
Solar Radiation: Electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun.
Solar Satellite Power: A proposed process of using satellites in geosynchronous orbit above the earth to capture solar energy with photovoltaic cells, convert it to microwave energy, beam the microwaves to earth where they would be received by large antennas, and changed from microwave into usable electricity.
Solar Thermal Power Plant: Means a thermal power plant in which 75 percent or more of the total energy output is from solar energy and the use of backup fuels, such as oil, natural gas, and coal, does not, in the aggregate, exceed 25 percent of the total energy input of the facility during any calendar year period.
Solar Thermal: The process of concentrating sunlight on a relatively small area to create the high temperatures needs to vaporize water or other fluids to drive a turbine for generation of electric power.
Solder: A metallic compound used to seal joints between pipes. Until recently, most solders contained 50 percent lead. Use of solder containing more than 0.2 percent lead in pipes carrying drinking water is now prohibited.
Sole-Source Aquifer: An aquifer that supplies 50-percent or more of the drinking water of an area.
Solid Waste: Non-liquid, non-soluble materials ranging from municipal garbage to industrial wastes that contain complex and sometimes hazardous substances. Solid wastes also include sewage sludge, agricultural refuse, demolition wastes, and mining residues. Technically, solid waste also refers to liquids and gasses in containers.
Solid Waste Disposal: The final placement of refuse that is not salvaged or recycled.
Solid Waste Management: Supervised handling of waste materials from their source through recovery processes to disposal.
Solidification and Stabilization: Removal of wastewater from a waste or changing it chemically to make it less permeable and susceptible to transport by water.
Solubility: The amount of mass of a compound that will dissolve in a unit volume of solution. Aqueous Solubility is the maximum concentration of a chemical that will dissolve in pure water at a reference temperature.
Soot: Carbon dust formed by incomplete combustion.
Sorption: The action of soaking up or attracting substances; the process used in many pollution control systems.
Sorting: The sorting of mixed waste into different categories (cardboard, plastics, and wooden pallets) with a view to facilitating treatment through processes specific to each category.
Sorting Rejects: Materials not recovered during industrial sorting. Some rejects can be subjected to treatment later.
Sound Pressure Level (dB(A)): A-weighted sound pressure level at a certain distance from the source.
Source Area: The location of liquid hydrocarbons or the zone of highest soil or groundwater concentrations, or both, of the chemical of concern.
Source Characterization Measurements: Measurements made to estimate the rate of release of pollutants into the environment from a source such as an incinerator, landfill, etc.
Source Energy: All the energy used in delivering energy to a site, including power generation and transmission and distribution losses, to perform a specific function, such as space conditioning, lighting, or water heating. Approximately three watts (or 10.239 Btus) of energy is consumed to deliver one watt of usable electricity.
Source Reduction: Reducing a number of materials entering the waste stream from a specific source by redesigning products or patterns of production or consumption (e.g., using returnable beverage containers). It is synonymous with waste reduction.
Source Separation: Segregating various wastes at the point of generation (e.g., separation of paper, metal and glass from other wastes to make recycling simpler and more efficient).
Source-Water Protection Area: The area delineated by a state for a Public Water Supply or including numerous such suppliers, whether the source is ground water or surface water or both.
Sparge or Sparging: Injection of air below the water table to strip dissolved volatile organic compounds and/or oxygenate ground water to facilitate aerobic biodegradation of organic compounds.
Special Contracts: Any contract that provides a utility service under terms and conditions other than those listed in the utility's tariffs. For example, an electric utility may enter into an agreement with a large customer to provide electricity at a rate below the tariffed rate in order to prevent the customer from taking advantage of some other option that would result in the loss of the customer's load. This generally allows that customer to compete more effectively in their product market.
Special Local-Needs Registration: Registration of a pesticide product by a state agency for a specific use that is not federally registered. However, the active ingredient must be federally registered for other uses. The special use is specific to that state and is often minor, thus may not warrant the additional cost of a full federal registration process. SLN registration cannot be issued for new active ingredients, food-use active ingredients without tolerances, or for a canceled registration. The products cannot be shipped across state lines.
Special Review: Formerly known as Rebuttable Presumption Against Registration (RPAR), this is the regulatory process through which existing pesticides suspected of posing unreasonable risks to human health, non-target organisms, or the environment are referred for review by EPA. Such review requires an intensive risk/benefit analysis with opportunity for public comment. If the risk is found to outweigh social and economic benefits, regulatory actions can be initiated, ranging from label revisions and use-restriction to cancellation or suspended registration.
Special Waste: Items such as household hazardous waste, bulky wastes (refrigerators, pieces of furniture, etc.) tires, and used oil.
Special Wastes: Wastes that are ideally considered to be outside of the MSW stream, but which sometimes enter it and must often be dealt with by municipal authorities. These include household hazardous waste, medical waste, construction and demolition debris, war and earthquake debris, tires, oils, wet batteries, sewage sludge, human excreta, slaughterhouse waste, and industrial waste. Any waste that requires special handling. Special waste is non-hazardous waste generally from an industrial generator and must be profiled to ensure that it does not contain elevated levels of potentially hazardous chemicals or materials.
Species: 1. A reproductively isolated aggregate of interbreeding organisms having common attributes and usually designated by a common name.2. An organism belonging to belonging to such a category.
Specific Conductance: Rapid method of estimating the dissolved solid content of a water supply by testing its capacity to carry an electrical current.
Specific Heat: In English units, the quantity of heat, in Btu, needed to raise the temperature of one pound of material one degree Fahrenheit.
Specific Yield: The amount of water a unit volume of saturated permeable rock will yield when drained by gravity.
Spill Prevention, Containment, and Countermeasures Plan (SPCP): Plan covering the release of hazardous substances as defined in the Clean Water Act.
Split-The-Savings (Electric Utility): The basis for settling economy-energy transactions between utilities. The added costs of the supplier are subtracted from the avoided costs of the buyer, and the difference is evenly divided.
Spoil: Dirt or rock removed from its original location--destroying the composition of the soil in the process--as in strip-mining, dredging, or construction.
Spray Tower Scrubber: A device that sprays alkaline water into a chamber where acid gasses are present to aid in neutralizing the gas.
Spring: Ground water seeping out of the earth where the water table intersects the ground surface.
Spring Melt/Thaw: The process whereby warm temperatures melt winter snow and ice. Because various forms of acid deposition may have been stored in the frozen water, the melt can result in abnormally large amounts of acidity entering streams and rivers, sometimes causing fish kills.
Stabilization: Conversion of the active organic matter in sludge into inert, harmless material.
Stable Air: A motionless mass of air that holds, instead of dispersing, pollutants.
Stack: A chimney, smokestack, or vertical pipe that discharges used air.
Stack Effect: Air, as in a chimney, that moves upward because it is warmer than the ambient atmosphere.
Stack Effect: Flow of air resulting from warm air rising, creating a positive pressure area at the top of a building and negative pressure area at the bottom. This effect can overpower the mechanical system and disrupt building ventilation and air circulation.
Stage II Controls: Systems placed on service station gasoline pumps to control and capture gasoline vapors during refueling.
Stagnation: Lack of motion in a mass of air or water that holds pollutants in place.
Stakeholder: Any organization, governmental entity, or individual that has a stake in or may be impacted by a given approach to environmental regulation, pollution prevention, energy conservation, etc.
Standard Industrial Classification Code: Also known as SIC Codes, a method of grouping industries with similar products or services and assigning codes to these groups.
Standard Reference Conditions: Standard conditions for ambient air, ambient air pressure, relative humidity, cooling water temperature referred to when defining engine output, fuel consumption etc.
Standard Sample: The part of finished drinking water that is examined for the presence of coliform bacteria.
Standards: Norms that impose limits on the amount of pollutants or emissions produced. EPA establishes minimum standards, but states are allowed to be stricter.
Standby Loss: A measure of the losses from a water heater tank. When expressed as a percentage, standby loss is the ratio of heat loss per hour to the heat content of the stored water above room temperature. When expressed in watts, standby loss is the heat lost per hour, per square foot of tank surface area.
Start of a Response Action: The point in time when there is a guarantee or set-aside of funding by EPA, other federal agencies, states or Principal Responsible Parties in order to begin response actions at a Superfund site.
State Emergency Response Commission (SERC): Commission appointed by each state governor according to the requirements of SARA Title III. The SERCs designate emergency planning districts, appoint local emergency planning committees, and supervise and coordinate their activities.
State Environmental Goals and Indication Project: Program to assist state environmental agencies by providing technical and financial assistance in the development of environmental goals and indicators.
State Implementation Plans (SIP): EPA approved state plans for the establishment, regulation, and enforcement of air pollution standards.
State Management Plan: Under FIFRA, a state management plan required by EPA to allow states, tribes, and U.S. territories the flexibility to design and implement ways to protect ground water from the use of certain pesticides.
Static Water Depth: The vertical distance from the centerline of the pump discharge down to the surface level of the free pool while no water is being drawn from the pool or water table.
Static Water Level: 1. Elevation or level of the water table in a well when the pump is not operating. 2. The level or elevation to which water would rise in a tube connected to an artesian aquifer or basin in a conduit under pressure.
Stationary Source: A fixed-site producer of pollution, mainly power plants and other facilities using industrial combustion processes.
Steady State Efficiency: A performance rating for space heaters; a measure of the percentage of heat from combustion of gas which is transferred to the space being heated under specified steady state conditions.
Steam Electric Plant: A power station in which steam is used to turn the turbines that generate electricity. The heat used to make the steam may come from burning fossil fuel, using a controlled nuclear reaction, concentrating the sun's energy, tapping the earth's natural heat or capturing industrial waste heat.
Sterilization: The removal or destruction of all microorganisms, including pathogenic and other bacteria, vegetative forms, and spores.
Sterilizer: One of three groups of antimicrobials registered by EPA for public health uses. EPA considers an antimicrobial to be a sterilizer when it destroys or eliminates all forms of bacteria, viruses, and fungi and their spores. Because spores are considered the most difficult form of microorganism to destroy, EPA considers the term sporicide to be synonymous with sterilizer.
Stirling Engine: An external combustion engine that converts heat into useable mechanical energy (shaft work) by the heating (expanding) and cooling (contracting) of a captive gas such as helium or hydrogen.
Stoichiometric: Stoichiometric is often used in thermodynamics to refer to the "perfect mixture" of a fuel and air.
Stoker (Wheelabrator): A grating system used to combust refuse in a controlled fashion.
Storage:The temporary holding of waste pending treatment or disposal, as in containers, tanks, waste piles, and surface impoundments.
Storage Type Water Heater: A water heater that heats and stores water at a thermostatically controlled temperature for delivery on demand.
Storm Sewer: A system of pipes (separate from sanitary sewers) that carries water runoff from buildings and land surfaces.
Strategic Petroleum Reserve: The strategic petroleum reserve consists of government owned and controlled crude oil stockpiles stored at various locations in the Gulf Coast region of the country. These reserves can be drawn down in response to sever oil supply disruptions. The target is to have a reserve of 750 million barrels of oil. Use of the reserve must be authorized by the President of the United States.
Stratification: Separating into layers.
Stratigraphy: Study of the formation, composition, and sequence of sediments, whether consolidated or not.
Stratosphere: The portion of the atmosphere 10-to-25 miles above the earth's surface.
Stressors: Physical, chemical, or biological entities that can induce adverse effects on ecosystems or human health.
Strip-Cropping: Growing crops in a systematic arrangement of strips or bands that serve as barriers to wind and water erosion.
Strip-Mining: A process that uses machines to scrape soil or rock away from mineral deposits just under the earth's surface.
Structural Deformation: Distortion in walls of a tank after the liquid has been added or removed.
Subcell: A pit into which waste is deposited in a landfill. Landfills are divided into cells, which are subdivided into subcells.
Subchronic: Of intermediate duration, usually used to describe studies or periods of exposure lasting between 5 and 90 days.
Subchronic Exposure: Multiple or continuous exposures lasting for approximately ten percent of an experimental species lifetime, usually over a three-month period.
Submerged Aquatic Vegetation: Vegetation that lives at or below the water surface; an important habitat for young fish and other aquatic organisms.
Subsidy: Direct or indirect payment from the government to businesses, citizens, or institutions to encourage the desired activity.
Substation: A facility that steps up or steps down the voltage in utility power lines. Voltage is stepped up where power is sent through long-distance transmission lines. it is stepped down where the power is to enter local distribution lines.
Subtitle D: The Federal rules and regulations that govern the environmental operations of MSW landfills.
Subwatershed: The topographic perimeter of the catchment area of a stream tributary.
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2): A pungent, colorless, gas formed primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels; becomes a pollutant when present in large amounts.
Sump: A pit or tank that catches liquid runoff for drainage or disposal.
Sunk Cost: In economics, a sunk cost is a cost that has already been incurred, and therefore cannot be avoided by any strategy going forward.
Superchlorination: Chlorination with doses that are deliberately selected to produce water free of combined residuals so large as to require dechlorination.
Superconductor: A synthetic material that has very low or no electrical resistance. Such experimental materials are being investigated in laboratories to see if they can be created at near room temperatures. If such a superconductor can be found, electrical transmission lines with no little or no resistance may be built, thus conserving energy usually lost in transmission. Superconductors could also have used in computer chips, solid state devices, and electrical motors or generators.
Supercritical Water: A type of thermal treatment using moderate temperatures and high pressures to enhance the ability of water to break down large organic molecules into smaller, less toxic ones. Oxygen injected during this process combines with simple organic compounds to form carbon dioxide and water.
Superfund: The program operated under the legislative authority of CERCLA and SARA that funds and carries out EPA solid waste emergency and long-term removal and remedial activities. These activities include establishing the National Priorities List, investigating sites for inclusion on the list, determining their priority, and conducting and/or supervising cleanup and other remedial actions.
Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program: EPA program to promote development and use of innovative treatment and site characterization technologies in Superfund site cleanups.
Supertanker: A very large ship designed to transport more than 500,000 deadweight tonnage of oil.
Supplemental Registration: An arrangement whereby a registrant licenses another company to market its pesticide product under the second company's registration.
Supplier of Water: Any person who owns or operates a public water supply.
Supply Bid: A bid into the PX indicating a price at which a seller is prepared to sell energy or ancillary services.
Supply-Side: Activities conducted on the utility's side of the customer meter. Activities designed to supply electric power to customers, rather than meeting load though energy efficiency measures or on-site generation on the customer side of the meter.
Surface Impoundment: Treatment, storage, or disposal of liquid hazardous wastes in ponds.
Surface Runoff: Precipitation, snow melt, or irrigation water in excess of what can infiltrate the soil surface and be stored in small surface depressions; a major transporter of non-point source pollutants in rivers, streams, and lakes.
Surface Uranium Mines: Strip mining operations for removal of uranium-bearing ore.
Surface Water: All water naturally open to the atmosphere (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, streams, impoundments, seas, estuaries, etc.)
Surface-Water Treatment Rule: Rule that specifies maximum contaminant level goals for Giardia lamblia, viruses, and Legionella and promulgates filtration and disinfection requirements for public water systems using surface-water or ground-water sources under the direct influence of surface water. The regulations also specify water quality, treatment, and watershed protection criteria under which filtration may be avoided.
Surfacing ACM: Asbestos-containing material that is sprayed or troweled on or otherwise applied to surfaces, such as acoustical plaster on ceilings and fireproofing materials on structural members.
Surfacing Material: Material sprayed or troweled onto structural members (beams, columns, or decking) for fire protection; or on ceilings or walls for fireproofing, acoustical or decorative purposes. Includes textured plaster, and other textured wall and ceiling surfaces.
Surfactant: A detergent compound that promotes lathering.
Surplus (Electric Utility): Excess firm energy available from a utility or region for which there is no market at the established rates.
Surrogate Data: Data from studies of test organisms or a test substance that are used to estimate the characteristics or effects on another organism or substance.
Surveillance System: A series of monitoring devices designed to check on environmental conditions.
Susceptibility Analysis: An analysis to determine whether a Public Water Supply is subject to significant pollution from known potential sources.
Suspect Material: Building material suspected of containing asbestos; e.g., surfacing material, floor tile, ceiling tile, thermal system insulation.
Suspended Loads: Specific sediment particles maintained in the water column by turbulence and carried with the flow of water.
Suspended Solids: Small particles of solid pollutants that float on the surface of, or are suspended in, sewage or other liquids. They resist removal by conventional means.
Suspension: Suspending the use of a pesticide when EPA deems it necessary to prevent an imminent hazard resulting from its continued use. An emergency suspension takes effect immediately; under an ordinary suspension, a registrant can request a hearing before the suspension goes into effect. Such a hearing process might take six months.
Suspension Culture: Cells growing in a liquid nutrient medium.
Sustainability: The characteristics of a product, material or process to be sustainable.
Sustainable: Of, relating to, or being a method of harvesting or using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged.
Sustainable Development: Sustainable development focuses on three areas: environmental protection, social improvement, and economic development. Production and consumption methods must respect the human and natural environment so that all earth's inhabitants can meet their fundamental needs (food, accommodation, clothing, education, work and living in a healthy environment). Sustainable development education is the only way to bring about a change in attitudes and behavior. Not only people but also companies, municipalities, governments and international institutions must change in order to combat the threats to the earth (social inequalities, industrial and health risks, climate change and loss of biodiversity).
Sustainable Practice: A practice (such as manufacturing) that maintains a given condition without destroying or depleting natural resources.
Sustainable Product: A product that has no negative impact on natural ecosystems or resources.
Sustained Orderly Development: A condition in which a growing and stable market are identified by orders that are placed on a reliable schedule. The orders increase in magnitude as previous deliveries and engineering and field experience lead to further reductions in costs. The reliability of these orders can be projected many years into the future, on the basis of long-term contracts, to minimize market risks and investor exposure.
Swamp: A type of wetland dominated by woody vegetation but without appreciable peat deposits. Swamps may be fresh or salt water and tidal or non-tidal.
Syncrude: Synthetic crude oil made from coal of from oil shale.
Synergism: An interaction of two or more chemicals that results in an effect greater than the sum of their separate effects.
Synfuel: Synthetic gas or synthetic oil. Fuel that is artificially made as contrasted to that which is found in nature. The synthetic gas made from coal is considered to be more economical and easier to produce than synthetic oil. When natural gas supplies in the earth are being depleted, it is expected that synthetic gas will be able to be used widely as a substitute fuel.
Syngas: Synthetic gas makes from coal. A mixture of light, combustible gasses produced by the advanced conversion technology (gasification or pyrolysis).
Synthetic Organic Chemicals (SOCs): Man-made (anthropogenic) organic chemicals. Some SOCs are volatile; others tend to stay dissolved in water instead of evaporating.
System: A combination of equipment and/or controls, accessories, interconnecting means and terminal elements by which energy is transformed to perform a specific function, such as climate control, service water heating, or lighting.
System Integration (Of New Technologies): The successful integration of a new technology into the electric utility system by analyzing the technology's system effects and resolving any negative impacts that might result from its broader use.
System With a Single Service Connection: A system that supplies drinking water to consumers via a single service line.
Systemic Pesticide: A chemical absorbed by an organism that interacts with the organism and makes the organism toxic to pests.