Abandoned Well: A well whose use has been permanently discontinued or which is in a state of such disrepair that it cannot be used for its intended purpose.
Abatement: Reducing the degree or intensity of, or eliminating, pollution.
Abatement Debris: Waste from remediation activities.
Absorbed Dose: In exposure assessment, the amount of a substance that penetrates an exposed organism's absorption barriers (e.g. skin, lung tissue, gastrointestinal tract) through physical or biological processes.
Absorptance: The ratio of the radiation absorbed by a surface to the total energy falling on that surface described as a percentage.
Absorption: The uptake of water, other fluids, or dissolved chemicals by a cell or an organism (as tree roots absorb dissolved nutrients in soil).
Absorption Barrier: Any of the exchange sites of the body that permit uptake of various substances at different rates (e.g. skin, lung tissue, and gastrointestinal-tract wall).
Access Charge: A charge paid by all market participants withdrawing energy from the ISO-controlled grid. The access charge will recover the portion of a utility's transmission revenue requirement not recovered through the variable usage charge.
Accident Site: The location of an unexpected occurrence, failure or loss, either at a plant or along a transportation route, resulting in a release of hazardous materials.
Acclimatization: The physiological and behavioral adjustments of an organism to changes in its environment.
Acid: A corrosive solution with a pH less than 7.
Acid Aerosol: Acidic liquid or solid particles small enough to become airborne. High concentrations can irritate the lungs and have been associated with respiratory diseases like asthma.
Acid Deposition: A complex chemical and atmospheric phenomenon that occurs when emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds and other substances are transformed by chemical processes in the atmosphere, often far from the original sources, and then deposited on earth in either wet or dry form. The wet forms, popularly called "acid rain," can fall to earth as rain, snow, or fog. The dry forms are acidic gasses or particulates.
Acid Mine Drainage: Drainage of water from areas that have been mined for coal or other mineral ores. The water has a low pH because of its contact with the sulfur-bearing material and is harmful to aquatic organisms.
Acid Neutralizing Capacity: Measure of the ability of a base (e.g. water or soil) to resist changes in pH.
Acidic: The condition of water or soil that contains a sufficient amount of acid substances to lower the pH below 7.0.
Action Levels: 1. Regulatory levels recommended by EPA for enforcement by FDA and USDA when pesticide residues occur in food or feed commodities for reasons other than the direct application of the pesticide. As opposed to "tolerances" which are established for residues occurring as a direct result of proper usage, action levels are set for inadvertent residues resulting from the previous legal use or accidental contamination. 2. In the Superfund program, the existence of a contaminant concentration in the environment high enough to warrant action or trigger a response under SARA and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan. The term is also used in other regulatory programs.
Activated Carbon: A highly adsorbent form of carbon used to remove odors and toxic substances from liquid or gaseous emissions. In waste treatment, it is used to remove dissolved organic matter from waste drinking water. It is also used in motor vehicle evaporative control systems.
Activated Sludge: Product that results when primary effluent is mixed with bacteria-laden sludge and then agitated and aerated to promote biological treatment, speeding the breakdown of organic matter in raw sewage undergoing secondary waste treatment.
Activator: A chemical added to a pesticide to increase its activity.
Active Ingredient: In any pesticide product, the component that kills, or otherwise controls, target pests. Pesticides are regulated primarily on the basis of active ingredients.
Active Solar Energy: Solar radiation used by special equipment to provide space heating, hot water or electricity.
Active Solar Energy System: A system designed to convert solar radiation into usable energy for space, water heating, or other uses. It requires a mechanical device, usually a pump or fan, to collect the sun's energy.
Acute Effect: An adverse effect on any living organism which results in severe symptoms that develop rapidly; symptoms often subside after the exposure stops.
Acute Exposure: A single exposure to a toxic substance which may result in severe biological harm or death. Acute exposures are usually characterized as lasting no longer than a day, as compared to longer, continuing exposure over a period of time.
Acute Toxicity: The ability of a substance to cause severe biological harm or death soon after a single exposure or dose. Also, any poisonous effect resulting from a single short-term exposure to a toxic substance.
Adaptation: Changes in an organism's physiological structure or function or habits that allow it to survive in new surroundings.
Add-on Control Device: An air pollution control device such as carbon absorber or incinerator that reduces the pollution in an exhaust gas. The control device usually does not affect the process being controlled and thus is "add-on" technology, as opposed to a scheme to control pollution through altering the basic process itself.
Adequately Wet: Asbestos-containing material that is sufficiently mixed or penetrated with liquid to prevent the release of particulates.
Adjustment Bid: A bid that is used by the ISO to adjust supply or demand when congestion is anticipated.
Administered Dose: In exposure assessment, the amount of a substance given to a test subject (human or animal) to determine dose-response relationships. Since exposure to chemicals is usually inadvertent, this quantity is often called potential dose.
Adsorption: Removal of a pollutant from air or water by collecting the pollutant on the surface of a solid material; e.g., an advanced method of treating waste in which activated carbon removes organic matter from waste-water.
Adulterants: Chemical impurities or substances that by law do not belong in a food or pesticide.
Adulterated: 1. Any pesticide whose strength or purity falls below the quality stated on its label. 2. A food, feed, or product that contains illegal pesticide residues.
Advanced Conversion Technology: New and developing thermal processes, such as gasification and pyrolysis, which can be utilized to dispose of MSW.
Advanced Treatment: A level of wastewater treatment more stringent than secondary treatment; requires an 85-percent reduction in conventional pollutant concentration or a significant reduction in non-conventional pollutants.
Advanced Wastewater Treatment: Any treatment of sewage that goes beyond the secondary or biological water treatment stage and includes the removal of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen and a high percentage of suspended solids.
Adverse Hydro: Water conditions limiting the production of hydroelectric power. In years having below-normal levels of rain and snow, and in seasons having less-than-usual runoff from mountain snow pack, there is then less water available for hydro energy production.
Aerated Lagoon: A holding and/or treatment pond that speeds up the natural process of biological decomposition of organic waste by stimulating the growth and activity of bacteria that degrade organic waste.
Aeration: A process which promotes biological degradation of organic matter in water. The process may be passive (as when waste is exposed to air), or active (as when a mixing or bubbling device introduces the air).
Aeration Tank: A chamber used to inject air into water.
Aerobic: Life or processes that require, or are not destroyed by, the presence of oxygen.
Aerobic Composting: A method of composting organic wastes using bacteria that need oxygen. This requires that the waste is exposed to air, either via turning or by forcing air through pipes that pass through the material.
Aerobic Treatment: Process by which microbes decompose complex organic compounds in the presence of oxygen and use the liberated energy for reproduction and growth. (Such processes include extended aeration, trickling filtration, and rotating biological contactors.)
Aerosol: 1. Small droplets or particles suspended in the atmosphere, typically containing sulfur. They are usually emitted naturally (e.g. in volcanic eruptions) and as the result of anthropogenic (human) activities such as burning fossil fuels. 2. The pressurized gas used to propel substances out of a container.
Aerosol: A finely divided material suspended in air or other gaseous environments.
Affected Landfill: Under the Clean Air Act, landfills that meet criteria for capacity, age, and emissions rates set by the EPA. They are required to collect and combust their gas emissions.
Affected Public: 1.The people who live and/or work near a hazardous waste site. 2. The human population adversely impacted following exposure to a toxic pollutant in food, water, air, or soil.
Afterburner: In incinerator technology, a burner located so that the combustion gasses are made to pass through its flame in order to remove smoke and odors. It may be attached to or be separated from the incinerator proper.
After-Market: The broad term that applies to any change after the original purchase, such as adding equipment not a part of the original purchase. As applied to alternative fuel vehicles, it refers to conversion devices or kits for conventional fuel vehicles.
AFUE (Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency): A measure of heating efficiency, in consistent units, determined by applying the federal test method for furnaces. This value is intended to represent the ratio of heat transferred to the conditioned space by the fuel energy supplied over one year.
Age Tank: A tank used to store a chemical solution of known concentration for feed to a chemical feeder. Also called a day tank.
Aggregator: An entity responsible for planning, scheduling, accounting, billing, and settlement for energy deliveries from the aggregator's portfolio of sellers and/or buyers. Aggregators seek to bring together customers or generators so they can buy or sell power in bulk, making a profit on the transaction.
Agricultural Pollution: Farming wastes, including runoff and leaching of pesticides and fertilizers; erosion and dust from plowing; improper disposal of animal manure and carcasses; crop residues, and debris.
Agricultural Waste: Poultry and livestock manure, and residual materials in liquid or solid form generated from the production and marketing of poultry, livestock or fur-bearing animals; also includes grain, vegetable, and fruit harvest residue.
Agro-ecosystem: Land used for crops, pasture, and livestock; the adjacent uncultivated land that supports other vegetation and wildlife; and the associated atmosphere, the underlying soils, groundwater, and drainage networks.
Air Binding: Situation where air enters the filter media and harms both the filtration and backwash processes.
Air Change: The replacement of a quantity of air in a space within a given period of time, typically expressed as air changes per hour. If a building has one air change per hour, this is equivalent to all of the air in the building being replaced in a one-hour period.
Air Changes Per Hour (ACH): The movement of a volume of air in a given period of time; if a house has one air change per hour, it means that the air in the house will be replaced in a one-hour period.
Air Cleaning: Indoor-air quality-control strategy to remove various airborne particulates and/or gasses from the air. Most common methods are particulate filtration, electrostatic precipitation, and gas sorption.
Air Conditioner: An assembly of equipment for air treatment consisting of a means for ventilation, air circulation, air cleaning, and heat transfer (either heating or cooling). The unit usually consists of an evaporator or cooling coil, and an electrically-driven compressor and condenser combination.
Air Contaminant: Any particulate matter, gas, or the combination thereof, other than water vapor.
Air Curtain: A method of containing oil spills. Air bubbling through a perforated pipe causes an upward water flow that slows the spread of oil. It can also be used to stop fish from entering the polluted water.
Air Exchange Rate: The rate at which outside air replaces indoor air in a given space.
Air film: A layer of still air adjacent to a surface which provides some thermal resistance.
Air Film Coefficient: A measure of the heat transfer through an air film.
Air Gap: The open vertical gap or empty space that separates drinking water supply to be protected from another water system in a treatment plant or other location. The open gap protects the drinking water from contamination by backflow or back siphonage.
Air Handling Unit: Equipment that includes a fan or blower, heating and/or cooling coils, regulator controls, condensate drain pans, and air filters.
Air Mass: A large volume of air with certain meteorological or polluted characteristics--e.g., a heat inversion or smogginess--while in one location. The characteristics can change as the air mass moves away.
Air/Oil Table: The surface between the vadose zone and ambient oil; the pressure of oil in the porous medium is equal to atmospheric pressure.
Air Padding: Pumping dry air into a container to assist with the withdrawal of liquid or to force a liquefied gas such as chlorine out of the container.
Air Permeability: Permeability of soil with respect to air. Important to the design of soil-gas surveys. Measured in darcys or centimetres-per-second.
Air Plenum: Any space used to convey air in a building, furnace, or structure. The space above a suspended ceiling is often used as an air plenum.
Air Pollutant: Any substance in air that could, in high enough concentration, harm man, other animals, vegetation, or material. Pollutants may include almost any natural or artificial composition of airborne matter capable of being airborne. They may be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, gasses, or in combination thereof. Generally, they fall into two main groups: (1) those emitted directly from identifiable sources and (2) those produced in the air by interaction between two or more primary pollutants, or by reaction with normal atmospheric constituents, with or without photo activation. Exclusive of pollen, fog, and dust, which are of natural origin, about 100 contaminants have been identified. Air pollutants are often grouped in categories for ease in classification; some of the categories are solids, sulfur compounds, volatile organic chemicals, particulate matter, nitrogen compounds, oxygen compounds, halogen compounds, a radioactive compound, and odors.
Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects.
Air Pollution Control Device: Mechanism or equipment that cleans emissions generated by a source (e.g. an incinerator, industrial smokestack, or an automobile exhaust system) by removing pollutants that would otherwise be released to the atmosphere.
Air Pollution Episode: A period of abnormally high concentration of air pollutants, often due to low winds and temperature inversion that can cause illness and death.
Air Quality Control Region:
Air Quality Criteria: The levels of pollution and lengths of exposure above which adverse health and welfare effects may occur.
Air Quality Standards: The level of pollutants prescribed by regulations that are not be exceeded during a given time in a defined area.
Air Sparging: Injecting air or oxygen into an aquifer to strip or flush volatile contaminants as air bubbles up through the ground water and is captured by a vapor extraction system.
Air Stripping: A treatment system that removes volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated ground water or surface water by forcing an airstream through the water and causing the compounds to evaporate.
Air Toxics: Any air pollutant for which a national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) does not exist (i.e. excluding ozone, carbon monoxide, PM-10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide) that may reasonably be anticipated to cause cancer; respiratory, cardiovascular, or developmental effects; reproductive dysfunctions, neurological disorders, heritable gene mutations, or other serious or irreversible chronic or acute health effects in humans.
Airborne Particulates: Total suspended particulate matter found in the atmosphere as solid particles or liquid droplets. The chemical composition of particulates varies widely, depending on location and time of year. Sources of airborne particulates include dust, emissions from industrial processes, combustion products from the burning of wood and coal, combustion products associated with motor vehicle or non-road engine exhausts, and reactions to gasses in the atmosphere.
Airborne Release: Release of any pollutant into the air.
Airspace: The projected bank cubic yards (BCY) of the landfill to be filled with waste as determined by survey and/or other engineering techniques.
Alachlor: A herbicide, marketed under the trade name Lasso, used mainly to control weeds in corn and soybean fields.
Alar: Trade name for daminozide, a pesticide that makes apples redder, firmer, and less likely to drop off trees before growers are ready to pick them. It is also used to a lesser extent on peanuts, tart cherries, concord grapes, and other fruits.
Alcohol Fuels: A class of liquid chemicals that have certain combinations of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, and that are capable of being used as fuel.
Aldicarb: An insecticide sold under the trade name Temik. It is made from ethyl isocyanate.
Algae: Simple rootless plants that grow in sunlit waters in proportion to a number of available nutrients. They can affect water quality adversely by lowering the dissolved oxygen in the water. They are food for fish and small aquatic animals.
Algal Blooms: Sudden spurts of algal growth, which can affect water quality adversely and indicate potentially hazardous changes in local water chemistry.
Algicide: Substance or chemical used specifically to kill or control algae.
Aliquot: A measured portion of a sample taken for analysis. One or more aliquots make up a sample.
Alkaline: The condition of water or soil which contains a sufficient amount of alkali substance to raise the pH above 7.0.
Alkalinity: The capacity of bases to neutralize acids. An example is a lime added to lakes to decrease acidity.
Allergen: A substance that causes an allergic reaction in individuals sensitive to it.
Alluvial: Relating to and/or sand deposited by flowing water.
Alternate Method: Any method of sampling and analyzing for an air or water pollutant that is not a reference or equivalent method but that has been demonstrated in specific cases-to EPA's satisfaction-to produce results adequate for compliance monitoring.
Alternative Compliance: A policy that allows facilities to choose among methods for achieving emission-reduction or risk-reduction instead of command-and control regulations that specify standards and how to meet them. Use of a theoretical emissions bubble over a facility to cap the amount of pollution emitted while allowing the company to choose where and how (within the facility) it complies.
Alternating Current (AC): Flow of electricity that constantly changes direction between positive and negative sides. Almost all power produced by electric utilities in the United States moves in current that shifts direction at a rate of 60 times per second.
Alternative Fuels: 1. Substitutes for traditional liquid, oil-derived motor vehicle fuels like gasoline and diesel. Includes mixtures of alcohol-based fuels with gasoline, methanol, ethanol, compressed natural gas, and others. 2. as defined by the National Energy Policy Act (EP Act) the fuels are: methanol, denatured ethanol and other alcohols, separately or in mixtures of 85 percent by volume or more (or other percentage not less than 70 percent as determined by U.S. Department of Energy rule) with gasoline or other fuels; CNG; LNG; LPG; hydrogen; "coal-derived liquid fuels;" fuels "other than alcohols" derived from "biological materials;" electricity, or any other fuel determined to be "substantially not petroleum" and yielding "substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits."
Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV): Motor vehicles that run on fuels other than petroleum-based fuels. As defined by the National Energy Policy Act (EP Act), this excludes reformulated gasoline as an alternative fuel.
Ambient Air: Any unconfined portion of the atmosphere: open air, surrounding air.
Ambient Measurement: A measurement of the concentration of a substance or pollutant within the immediate environs of an organism; taken to relate it to the amount of possible exposure.
Ambient Medium: Material surrounding or contacting an organism (e.g. outdoor air, indoor air, water, or soil, through which chemicals or pollutants can reach the organism.
Ambient Temperature: Temperature of the surrounding air or another medium.
Ampere (Amp): The unit of measure that tells how much electricity flows through a conductor. It is like using cubic feet per second to measure the flow of water. For example, a 1,200 watt, 120-volt hair dryer pulls 10 amperes of electric current (watts divided by volts).
Amperometric Titration: A way of measuring concentrations of certain substances in water using an electric current that flows during a chemical reaction.
Anaerobic: A life or process that occurs in, or is not destroyed by, the absence of oxygen.
Anaerobic Decomposition: Reduction of the net energy level and change in chemical composition of organic matter caused by microorganisms in an oxygen-free environment.
Anaerobic Digestion: Anaerobic digestion is a biological process that produces a gas principally composed of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) otherwise known as biogas. These gasses are produced from organic wastes such as livestock manure and food processing waste (also known as anaerobic composting).
Angle of Incidence: The angle that the sun's rays make with a line perpendicular to a surface. The angle of incidence determines the percentage of direct sunshine intercepted by a surface.
Animal Dander: Tiny scales of animal skin, a common indoor air pollutant.
Animal Studies: Investigations using animals as surrogates for humans with the expectation that the results are pertinent to humans.
Animal Waste Conversion: Process of obtaining energy from animal wastes. This is a type of biomass energy.
Anisotropy: In hydrology, the conditions under which one or more hydraulic properties of an aquifer vary from a reference point.
Annual Maximum Demand: The greatest of all demands of the electrical load which occurred during a prescribed interval in a calendar year.
Annular Space, Annulus: The space between two concentric tubes or casings, or between the casing and the borehole wall.
ANSI: American National Standards Institute is the national organization that coordinates development and maintenance of consensus standards and sets rules for fairness in their development. ANSI also represents the USA in developing international standards.
Antagonism: Interference or inhibition of the effect of one chemical by the action of another.
Antarctic "Ozone Hole": Refers to the seasonal depletion of ozone in the upper atmosphere above a large area of Antarctica.
Anthracite: Hard coal, found deep in the earth. It burns very hotly, with little flame. It usually has a heating value of 12,000-15,000 British thermal units (Btus) per pound.
Anti-Degradation Clause: Part of federal air quality and water quality requirements prohibiting deterioration where pollution levels are above the legal limit.
Anti-Microbial: An agent that kills microbes.
Antimicrobial Preservative: Natural or synthetically derived chemical additive incorporated into/onto product surfaces to prevent microbial growth, odors and stains.
Antimony Trioxide: A compound used as a fire retardant and as a catalyst to manufacture PET (polyethylene terephthalate).
Appliance Efficiency Standards: Appliance Efficiency Standards regulate the minimum performance requirements for appliances and apply to refrigerators, freezers, room air conditioners, central air conditioners, gas space heaters, water heaters, plumbing fittings, fluorescent lamp ballasts and luminaries, and ignition devices for gas cooking appliances and gas pool heaters. New National Appliance Standards are in place for some of these appliances and will become effective for others at a future date.
Appliance Saturation: A percentage telling what proportion of all households in a given geographical area have a certain appliance.
Applied Dose: In exposure assessment, the amount of a substance in contact with the primary absorption boundaries of an organism (e.g. skin, lung tissue, gastrointestinal track) and available for absorption.
Aqueous: Something made up of water.
Aqueous Solubility: The maximum concentration of a chemical that will dissolve in pure water at a reference temperature.
Aquifer: An underground geological formation, or group of formations, containing water. Are sources of groundwater for wells and springs.
Aquifer Test: A test to determine hydraulic properties of an aquifer.
Aquitard: The geological formation that may contain groundwater but is not capable of transmitting significant quantities of it under normal hydraulic gradients. May function as confining bed.
Architectural Coatings: Coverings such as paint and roof tar that are used on exteriors of buildings.
Area Load: The total amount of electricity being used at a given point in time by all consumers in a utility's service territory.
Aromatics: A type of hydrocarbon, such as benzene or toluene, with a specific type of ring structure. Aromatics are sometimes added to gasoline in order to increase octane. Some aromatics are toxic.
Arsenicals: Pesticides containing arsenic.
Artesian (Aquifer or Well): Water held under pressure in porous rock or soil confined by impermeable geological formations.
Asbestos: A mineral fiber that can pollute air or water and cause cancer or asbestosis when inhaled. EPA has banned or severely restricted its use in manufacturing and construction.
Asbestos Abatement: Procedures to control fiber release from asbestos-containing materials in a building or to remove them entirely, including removal, encapsulation, repair, enclosure, encasement, and operations and maintenance programs.
Asbestos Assessment: In the asbestos-in-schools program, the evaluation of the physical condition and potential for damage of all friable asbestos containing materials and thermal insulation systems.
Asbestosis: A disease associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. The disease makes breathing progressively more difficult and can be fatal.
Ash: Non-organic, non-flammable substance left over after the combustible material has been completely burned.
Assay: A test for a specific chemical, microbe, or effect.
Assessment Endpoint: In ecological risk assessment, an explicit expression of the environmental value to be protected; includes both an ecological entity and specifically attributed thereof. entity (e.g. salmon are a valued ecological entity; reproduction and population maintenance--the attribute--form an assessment endpoint.)
Assimilation: The ability of a body of water to purify itself of pollutants.
Assimilative Capacity: The capacity of a natural body of water to receive wastewaters or toxic materials without deleterious effects and without damage to aquatic life or humans who consume the water.
Associated Gas: Natural gas that can be developed for commercial use, and which is found in contact with oil in naturally occurring underground formations.
Association of Boards of Certification: An international organization representing boards which certify the operators of waterworks and wastewater facilities.
ATGAS: Synthetic gas produced by dissolving coal in a bath of molten iron. The process was developed by Applied Technology, Inc. Synthetic gas may be used as a substitute for natural gas in industrial and home uses.
ATOM: The smallest unit of an element consisting of a dense positively charged nucleus (of protons and neutrons) orbited by negatively charged electrons.
Atomic Energy Commission: The independent civilian agency of the federal government with the statutory responsibility to supervise and promote the use of nuclear energy. Functions were taken over in 1974 by the Energy Research and Development Administration (now part of the U.S. Department of Energy) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Atomic Nucleus: The positively charged core of an atom.
Attainment Area: An area considered to have air quality as good as or better than the national ambient air quality standards as defined in the Clean Air Act. An area may be an attainment area for one pollutant and a non-attainment area for others.
Attenuation: The process by which a compound is reduced in concentration over time, through absorption, adsorption, degradation, dilution, and/or transformation. an also be the decrease with distance of sight caused by attenuation of light by particulate pollution.
Attractant: A chemical or agent that lures insects or other pests by stimulating their sense of smell.
Attrition: Wearing or grinding down of a substance by friction. Dust from such processes contributes to air pollution.
Autoclaving: Sterilization via a pressurized, high-temperature steam process.
Auxiliary Energy Subsystem: Equipment using conventional fuel to supplement the energy output of a solar system. This might be, for example, an oil- fueled generator that adds to the electrical output of substitutes for the solar system during long overcast periods when there is not enough sunlight.
Auxiliary Equipment: Extra machinery needed to support the operation of a power plant or other large facility.
Availability Session: Informal meeting at a public location where interested citizens can talk with EPA and state officials on a one-to-one basis.
Available Chlorine: A measure of the amount of chlorine available in chlorinated lime, hypochlorite compounds, and other materials used as a source of chlorine when compared with that of liquid or gaseous chlorines.
Average Cost: The revenue requirement of a utility divided by the utility's sales. Average cost typically includes the costs of existing power plants, transmission, and distribution lines, and other facilities used by a utility to serve its customers. It also included operating and maintenance, tax, and fuel expenses.
Average Demand: The energy demand in a given geographical area over a period of time. For example, the number of kilowatt-hours used in a 24-hour period, divided by 24, tells the average demand for that period.
Average Hydro: Rain, snow and runoff conditions that provide water for hydroelectric generation equal to the most commonly occurring levels. Average hydro usually is a mean indicating the levels experienced most often in a 104-year period.
Avoided Cost: The cost a utility would incur to generate the next increment of electric capacity using its own resources; many landfill gas projects' buy back rates are based on avoided costs.
Azimuth: The angular distance between true south and the point on the horizon directly below the sun. Typically used as an input for opaque surfaces and windows in computer programs for calculating the energy performance of buildings.
A-Scale Sound Level: A measurement of sound approximating the sensitivity of the human ear, used to note the intensity or annoyance level of sounds.