Technical Acronyms

BioCRUDE Technologies, Inc. has prepared a list of Acronyms of Environmental terms for your reference. These Acronyms have been compiled from a number of sources and relate to technical environmental terms in the "Waste to Energy" milieu.

This list of Acronyms has been categorized alphabetically, using the index to the right.

A - Ampere

AAL - All aluminum (electricity conductor)

AAQS - Ambient Air Quality Standards

AC - Alternating Current

ACF – Activated Carbon Filter

ACSR - Aluminum Covered Steel Reinforced (electricity conductor)

ADS – Air Density Separator

AEI - Advanced Energy Initiative

AFC - Application for Certification

AFY - Acre-feet per year

AGW - Anthropogenic Global Warming

AHM - Acutely Hazardous Materials

AL - Aluminum

ANSI - American National Standards Institute

APCD - Air Pollution Control District

APCO - Air Pollution Control Officer

API - American Petroleum Institute

APPA - American Public Power Association

AQMD - Air Quality Management District

AQMP - Air Quality Management Plan

ASAE - American Society of Architectural Engineers

ASAT - Appliance Saturation

ASHRAE - American Society of Heating Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Engineers

ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASTM - American Society of Testing Materials

AWS - American Welding Society

AWWA - American Water Works Association

BACT - Best Available Control Technology

BAF - Basic American Foods

BANANA - Build Absolutely Nothing Anywhere Near Anybody

BARCT - Best Available Retrofit Control Technology

bbl - Barrel

BBLs - Barrels of Oil

BBRS - Board for Building Regulations and Standards

BC – Belt Conveyor

BCF - Billion cubic feet

Bcfd - Billion Cubic feet per day

BDT - Bone Dry Tons

BG - Biomass Gasification

BIL - Basic Impulse Insulation Level

BLM - Bureau of Land Management

BOD – Biological Oxygen Demand

BOE - Barrels of Oil Equivalent

BOOT – Build, Own, Operate & Transfer

BOT – Build, Operate & Transfer

BS – British Standards

BT - Building Technologies

BTL - Biomass-to-Liquid

Btu - British Thermal Unit

BUREC - Bureau of Reclamation

C&I - Commercial and Industrial

CAA - U.S. Clean Air Act

CACW – Closed Air Circuit Water Cooled

CAFE - Corporate Average Fuel Economy

CAPM - Capital Asset Pricing Model

CARES - Conservation and Renewable Energy System

CBECS - Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey

CDM – Clean Development Mechanism

CEA - Canadian Electricity Association

CEERT - Coalition for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies

CEM - Continuous Emissions Monitoring

CFB - Circulating Fluidized Bed

CFCs - Chloro-fluorocarbons

CFM - Cubic feet per minute

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations

cfs – Cubic feet per second

CGWA – Central Ground Water Association

CII – Confederation of Indian Industry

CLUP - Comprehensive Land Use Plan

CNEL - Community Noise Equivalent Level

CNG – Compressed Natural Gas

CO - Carbon Monoxide

CO2 - Carbon Dioxide

COD - Chemical Oxygen Demand

CPCB – Central Pollution Control Board

CPCN - Certificate of Public Convenience & Necessity

CPM - Compliance Project Manager

CSA - Canadian Standards Association

CSE - Conservancy and Sanitation Department

CSL - Candidate Standard Level

CT - Combustion Turbine

CT - Current Transformer

CTG - Combustion Turbine Generator

CTI – Cooling Tower Institute

CTL - Coal-to-Liquid Conversion

CU - Copper

CUM – Cubic metre

CWA - Clean Water Act

dB - Decibel

dB(A) - Decibel on the A scale

DC - Direct Current

DCS – Distributed Control System

DCTL - Double Circuit Transmission Line

DDA – Delhi Development Authority

DER - Distributed Energy Resources

DERC - Delhi Electricity Regulatory Commission

DG - Diesel Generating Set

DL - Design Line (followed by a number indicating which design line)

DM - Demineralised Water

DOC - Determination of Compliance

DOE - U.S. Department of Energy

DPCC - Delhi Pollution Control Committee

DPCL - Delhi Power Company Ltd.

DPR - Detailed Project Report

DSCR - Debt Service Coverage Ratio

DSM - Demand Side Management

E&P - Exploration and Production

EDR - Energy Development Report

EER, SEER - Energy Efficiency Ratio, Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio

EFS&EPD - Energy Facilities Siting and Environmental Protection Division

EIA - Energy Information Administration

ELFIN - Electric Utility Financial and Production Simulation Model

EMF - Electric and Magnetic Fields

EMM - Electricity Market Model

EMP – Environmental Management Plan

EOR - Enhanced Oil Recovery

EPA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

EPC - Engineering Procurement & Construction

EPCA - Energy Policy and Conservation Act

EPR - Energy Profit Ratio

EPRI - Electric Power Research Institute

ERC - Emission Reduction Credit {offset}

EROEI - Energy Return on Energy Invested

ERP - Equity Risk Premium

ESA - Endangered Species Act (Federal)

ESA - Environmental Site Assessment

ESP - Energy Service Providers

ETP - Effluent Treatment Plant

ETSR - Energy Technologies Status Report

EUC - End Use Consumption

EUI - End Use Intensities

FAA - Federal Aviation Administration

FBE - Functional Basis Earthquake

FBS - Federal Base System

FCAA - Federal Clean Air Act

FCC - Federal Communications Commission

FEMA - Federal Emergency Management Agency

FEMP - Federal Energy Management Program

FERC - Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

FIP - Federal Implementation Plan

FIP - Fields in Production

FONSI - Finding of No-Significant Impact

FOP - Fuel Oil Price

FSA - Final Staff Assessment

FT - Fischer-Tropsch process of converting methane, biomass, or coal to liquid fuels

FUA - Fields under Appraisal

FUD - Fields under Development

g/m3 - micro grams (10-6 grams) per cubic meter

GB - Gigabarrels = 1 billion barrels

GCV – Gross Calorific Value

GDP - Gross Domestic Product

GEP - Good Engineering Practice

GHG - Greenhouse Gas (e.g., CO2, methane)

GIS - Gas Insulated Switchgear

GIS - Geographic Information System

GOSP - Gas Oil Separation Plant

gpd - Gallons per day

gpm - Gallons per minute

GRDA - Geothermal Resources Development Account

GRIM - Government Regulatory Impact Model

GSC - Gland Steam Condenser

GTL - Gas-to-Liquids Conversion

GW - Gigawatt

GWh - Gigawatt-hour

H2S - Hydrogen Sulfide

HAG – Hot Air Generator

HCP - Habitat Conservation Plan

HELM - Hourly Electric Load Model

HHV - Higher Heating Value

HL - Hubbert Linearization

H-O DR - Laser-scribed M3 core steel

HP – High Pressure

HRA - Health Risk Assessment

HRSG - Heat Recovery Steam Generator

HTS - High-Temperature Superconducting

HV - High Voltage

HVAC - Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning

Hz - Hertz

IAR - Issues and Alternatives Report

ID - Load Identification

IEA - International Energy Agency

IEC - International Electro technical Commission

IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

IID - Imperial Irrigation District

IMBUILD - Impact of Building

IMPLAN - Impact Analysis for Planning

INFORM - Industrial End Use Forecasting Model

IOC - International Oil Company (e.g., British Petroleum, Exxon Mobil)

IOU - Investor-Owned Utility

IRR – Internal Rate of Return

IS - Initial Study

IWMP - Integrated Waste Management Project

JES - Joint Environmental Statement

JPA - Joint Powers Authority

KA – Kilo Ampere

KCM - Thousand circular mils (also KCmil) (electricity conductor)

KGRA - Known Geothermal Resource Area

km - kilometer

KOP - Key Observation Point

kV - kilovolt

KVA - kilovolt-ampere (transformer size rating)

KVAR - kilovolt-ampere reactive

kW (small k, capital W) - kilowatt

kWe - kilowatt, electric

kWh - kilowatt hour

kWp - Peak kilowatt

LAER - Lowest Achievable Emission Rate

LAVT – Lightning Arrestor & Voltage Transformer

lbs - Pounds

lbs/hr - Pounds per hour

lbs/MMBtu - Pounds per million British thermal units

LC – Letter of Credit

LCC - Life-Cycle Cost

LL - Load Loss

LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas

LORS - lLws, Ordinances, Regulations and Standards

LP – Low Pressure

LPG - Liquified Petroleum Gas (propane and butane)

LQHC - Low Quality Hydrocarbons (i.e., tar sands and oil shale)

LSE - Load Serving Entities

LV - Low Voltage

m - metre

M* - M2, M3, M4, M6 - Thickness of Core Steel

m/s - meters per second

MB - Millions of barrels

MBD - Millions of barrels per day

MCE - Maximum Credible Earthquake

MCF - Thousand cubic feet

MCF but in parentheses say (1000 cubic feet of natural gas)

MCL - Maximum Containment Level

MCM - Thousand circular mil (electricity conductor)

MEID - Merced Irrigation District

MER - Maximum Effective Rate (of production)

MG - milli gauss

mgd - million gallons per day

MIA - Manufacturer Impact Analysis

MID - Modesto Irrigation District

mld – Million litres per day

MMcfd - Million cubic feet per day (used with natural gas)

MMT - Million metric tons

MNRE - Ministry of New and Renewable Energy

MOU - Memorandum of Understanding

MPE - Maximum Probable Earthquake

MRC - Maximum Reservoir Contact

MSW – Municipal Solid Waste

MT – Metric tonnes

MU – Million units

MV - megavolt

MVA - megavolt-amperes

MVAR - megavolt-ampere reactive

MW - megawatt (million watts)

MW (all capitals) / MWh - megawatt / megawatt-hour

MWD - Metropolitan Water District

MWh - megawatt hour

MWp - Peak megawatt

N-1 - One transmission circuit out

N-2 - Two transmission circuits out

NAAQS - National Ambient Air Quality Standards

NAICS - North American Industry Classification System

NEEA - Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, also known as The Alliance

NEEP - Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnership

NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association

NEMS - National Energy Modeling System

NEPA - National Environmental Policy Act (federal "equivalent" of CEQA) of 1969

NERC - North American Electric Reliability Council

NES - National Energy Savings

NESHAPS - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

NFPA - National Fire Protection Association

NG - Natural Gas (mainly methane)

NGL - Natural Gas Liquids (ethane, propane, butane, isobutane and natural gasoline)

NGO – Non Government Organization

NGR – Neutral Grounding Resistor

NHA - National Hydropower Association

NIMBY - Not In My Backyard

NL - No-Load Losses

NMFS - National Marine Fisheries Service

NMHC – Non Methane Hydrocarbons

NO - Nitrogen Oxide

NO2 - Nitrogen Dioxide

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOC - National Oil Company (e.g., Saudi Aramco)

NOI - Notice of Intention

NOM - Normas Oficiales Mexicanas-NOM (official Mexican standards)

NOP - Notice of Preparation (of EIR)

NOPR - Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

NOV - Notice of Violation

NOx - Nitrogen Oxides

NPV - Net Present Value

NRC - Nuclear Regulatory Commission

NRCan - Natural Resources Canada

NRDC - Natural Resources Defense Council

NRECA - National Rural Electric Cooperative Association

NSPS - New Source Performance Standards

NSR - New Source Review

NWEC - Northwest Energy Coalition

NWPP - Northwest Power Pool

NWPPA - Northwest Public Power Association

NWPPC - Northwest Power Planning Council

NYMEX - New York Mercantile Exchange

NYSERDA - New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA)

O&M - Operation and Maintenance

O3 - Ozone

OCB - Oil Circuit Breaker

ODAC - Oil Depletion Analysis Centre

OECD - Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development

OEE - Office of Energy Efficiency

OEMs - Original Equipment Manufacturers

OGJ - The Oil & Gas Journal

OIRA - Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs

OMB - Office of Management and Budget

OOIP - Original Oil in Place

OPEC - Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration (or Act)

PBP - Payback Period

PC - Product Class

PCC – Power Control Centre

PCI - Per Capita Income

PGC - Public Goods Charge

PGP - Public Generating Pool

PIFUA - Federal Powerplant & Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978

PLF – Plant Load Factor

PM - Particulate matter

PM - Project Manager

PM10 - Particulate matter 10 microns and smaller in diameter

PM2.5 - Particulate matter 2.5 microns and smaller in diameter

PMA - Power Marketing Authority

PO - Peak Oil

PPA – Power Purchase Agreement

ppb - parts per billion

PPC - Public Power Council

PPHH - Persons Per Household

ppm - parts per million

ppmvd - parts per million by volume, dry

ppt - parts per thousand

PRC - Public Resources Code

PRF - Peak Responsibility Factor

PT - Potential Transformer

PTO - Permit to Operate

PU - per unit

PUC - Public Utilities Commission

PURPA - Federal Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act of 1978

PV - Photovoltaic

PVC - Poly Vinyl Chloride

QA/QC - Quality Assurance/Quality Control

QF - Qualifying Facility

QFER - Quarterly Fuel and Energy Reports

Qt - The estimated URR from a Hubbert Linearization

Quad - One quadrillion (1015) British thermal units

RACT - Reasonably Available Control Technology

RASS - Residential Appliance Saturation Survey

RCC – Reinforced Concrete Cement

RD&D - Research, Development, and Demonstration

RDF - Refuse Derived Fuel

RETO - Reasonably Expected to Occur

RFP - Request for Proposals

RFQ - Request for Qualifications

RMS - Root mean square

RO – Reverse Osmosis

ROC - Reactive Organic Compounds

ROC - Report of Conversation

ROE – Return on Equity

ROG - Reactive Organic Gas

ROW - Right of Way

RP - Reserves/Production Ratio

RPM - Revolutions / Rotations per Minute

RTD - Resistance Temperature Detector

RTO - Regional Transmission Organization

RTP - Real-Time Pricing

RUL - Regular Unleaded Gasoline

RWQCB - Regional Water Quality Control Board

SA – Secondary Air

SA1 - Metglas amorphous core material

SBC – Soil Bearing Capacity

SCFM - Standard cubic feet per minute

SCH - State Clearing House

SCR - Selective Catalytic Reduction

SCTL - Single Circuit Transmission Line

SEC - Securities and Exchange Commission

SEGS - Solar Electric Generating Station

SERC – State Electricity Regulatory Commission

SIC - Standard industrial classification

SIP - State Implementation Plan

SLF – Sanitary Land Fill

SNCR - Selective Noncatalytic Reduction

SNG - Synthetic Natural Gas

SnoPUD - Snohomish PUD

SO2 - Sulfur Dioxide

SO4 - Sulfates

SOx - Sulfur Oxides

SPP - Sierra Pacific Power

SPR - Strategic Petroleum Reserve

SPV – Special Purpose Vehicle

SQM – Square metre

STIG - Steam Injected Gas Turbine

STP – Sewerage Treatment Plant

SWP - State Water Project

SWRCB - State Water Resources Control Board

TAC - Toxic Air Contaminant

TB - Trillions of barrels

TBL - Transmission Business Line of BPA

TBtu - Trillion Btu

TCF - Trillion cubic feet

TCF - Trillion cubic feet (dry natural gas)

TCM - Transportation control measure

TCU - Transportation, Communications and Utilities

TDM - Tariff Data Model

TDS - Total Dissolved Solids

TE - Transmission Engineering

TEOR - Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery

TL - Total Losses

TL - Transmission line or lines

T-Line - Transmission line

TOC - Total Owning Cost

TOD - The Oil Drum

TOG - Total Organic Gases

TOU - Time of use

TPD - tonnes per day

TPH – tonnes per hour

TPY - tonnes per year

TS&N - Transmission Safety and Nuisance

TSD - Technical Support Document

TSE - Transmission System Engineering

TSIN - Transmission Services Information Network

TSP - total suspended particulate matter

U.S. DOE - (United States) Department of Energy

U.S. EPA (not EPA) - United States Environmental Protection Agency

UBC - Uniform Building Code

UDC - Utility Displacement Credits

UDF - Utility Displacement Factor

UEC - Average Unit of Energy Consumption for each end use

UEG - Utility Electric Generator

ULB – Urban Local Bodies

ULSD - Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel

UNEP - United National Environment Programme

URL - Uniform Resource Locator

URR - Ultimately recoverable resources

USC(A) - United States Code (Annotated)

USCOE - U.S. Corps of Engineers

USEPA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

USFS - U.S. Forest Service

USFWS - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

USGS - United States Geological Survey

V - volts

VMT - Vehicle Miles Traveled

VOC - Volatile Organic Compounds

W - Watt

WAA - Warren-Alquist Act

WAAC – Weighted Average Cost of Capital

WCM – Working Capital Margin

WUTC - Washington Utilties & Transportation Commission

XLPE - Cross Linked Poly Ethylene

YTF - Yet to find

ZDMH - mechanically scribed, deep-domain refined core steel