Incineration fully converts the input waste into energy and ash. Under controlled conditions, the conversion could be deliberately limited so that combustion does not take place directly. Waste is converted into valuable intermediates that can be further processed for materials recycling or energy recovery
During gasification, thermal decomposition of organic materials takes place in the presence of a controlled limited supply of oxygen that it does not lead to combustion of the treated compounds. The main target for gasification is to convert organic compounds into a syngas that can be used in conjunction with gas engines/turbines. Conventional incineration used in conjunction with steam- boilers and turbine generators, achieves lower efficiency.
Pyrolysis is the decomposition of organic materials during heating, in an oxygen-free atmosphere, to produce gas, liquid, and solid residuals. Decomposition products of the pyrolysis depend upon the heat, pressure and time the material is held within the vessel.
The pyrolysis technology does offer the scope for increasing recycling rates and to address environmental concerns, under the proviso that it is used for its prescribed intended purpose; handling of fuel (plastics, polymer-based products, tires, wood chips, ..) feedstocks.
Pyrolysis is a process that is relatively insensitive to its input material but geared for plastics, polymer products, and tires. It can accept unsorted MSW (Municipal Solid Waste), dioxins and contaminated soils, but the economics of the outputs are QUESTIONABLE, relative to what energy could be extracted using alternate technological processes and direct energy inputs. By-products are gasses, oil and carbonized materials (carbon black).